Virginia issued the first slave code law that would become the standard for the Americas.  
Slaves and children of slaves are bound for life (A Roman Law).  
Written permission is required to carry arms or to leave the masters land (A feudal Law). 



METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1600-1699 index



Hudson Bay Company indentured 'Hospital Boys' 
for the Bay (Hudson Bay) for terms of seven year.
This started an insidious practice that carried into the twentieth century



Charles Bayley (d-1680), Chief Factor of Hudson Bay Company, is recalled to London, being accused of unspecified irregularities by what he called 'disgruntled subordinates'.  John Nixon became Chief Factor, Hudson Bay Company (1689-1683).  He complained that the London born children kept pestering him and asked for country lads instead.

(I)-Daniel Greysolon Dulhut (Duluth or Du Lhut) (1639-1710) explored the north shore of Lake Superior to near Thunder Bay where he wintered at Kaministikwia.

Fort Albany is established by HBC at mouth of Albany River.

It is believed a trading post is built about this time at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River near Thunder Bay.

A trading post is established at Lake Temiscamingue (Timiskaming, Quebec) but abandoned in 1688.

The first French garrison is established at Michillimackinac, thirty years after the Coureurs des Bois occupied this location.

A slave woman from the village of Ganagaro sent by Father Pierre Raffeix (1633-1724) a Jesuit,  slept with the men of (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) and informed them they would be tomahawked by the Iroquois and Miamis so as to instigate trouble for the Ilinois.  La Salle was convinced the Jesuits were out to dispose of him and his people.

January 26:   The keel of the 44 tonne Griffon was laid at the mouth of the Cayuga Creek on Lake Erie.  It would be launched on August 7, as the first ship to be built on and sail the Great Lakes, of the North West.

February 1:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) broke ground for Fort Conti at Niagara.

March:   (I)-Louis Jolliet (Joliet) a Coureurs des Bois  (1645-1700) is granted a fur trading concession at Mingan in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, to which d'Anticosti Island is added in 1680.  This was in consideration of his discovery of the Illinois Country.  He made an overland voyage to Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) this year to access the English position.  The H.B.C. attempted to induce him to join them, but he declined.

March 28:  Sillery, Quebec, birth, (II)-Genevieve Couturier, Metis, died March 24, 1715, Quebec, daughter (I)-Jacques Couturier b-1646, and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649, veuve September 23, 1662, de Jean Durand (1640-1671); married October 31, 1701 Quebec, Jean Metivier 

May 24:   King Louis XIV (1643–1715) issued a decree to prohibit all subjects inhabiting said country, with permission to hunt in the deep woods from the 15 day of January to the 15 day of April, to carry or sell alcohol to the Native villages. The penalty for a 1st offence is one hundred livres; 2nd offence is 300 livres; and 3rd offence is corporal punishment.

July:  A slave, Miamis woman, from the village of Ganagaro, of the Tsonnountouans, where Father Pierre Raffeix (1633-1724), a Jesuit lived informed (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) that the Jesuits had plotted to have the Iroquois tomahawked the next day.  The Slave woman had slept with one of La Salle's men and told him privately.  It is noteworthy that concubinage, especially with slaves, is tolerated even among Christians. 

July to September:  (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) recorded that the Jesuits Father d'Allouez and Father Pierre Raffeix (1633-1724), had conspired with the Iroquois to kill La Salle's party and establish a close union between the Iroguois and the Miamis for the overthrow of the Illinois.  La Salle said: "I well understood that the plot was prepared as much against me as against the Illinois."  When the plot was uncovered the Maiamis too flight and fled.  A short account of the attempted murder by the Jesuits is sent to France by the Recollet Father Melithon.  It is noteworthy that the Jesuits excluded any Metis discoveries under the principle that "good cannot come from evil".  Did they apply this principle to themselves?

July 2:   Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Dulhut, Duluth) (1636-1710) at the Dakota village of Izatys on the shore of Lake Mille Lacs, claimed the area for France.  Some claim he is the first European in Minnesota, New France. This is not likely.  

August 7:   The first ship to sail in the Great Lakes, launched by (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) on August 7, 1679, above the Niagara Falls, made only one voyage before becoming lost.  Some suggest Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704) supervised the construction of the ship Griffin.  La Salle and (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian, built a fort on the south shore of the Straits of Mackinac, New France, called Fort L'Arbre Croche and later called Fort St. Ignace.  Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut's party visited a Sioux village on Lake Mille Lac, (Minnesota).  He met a band of Assiniboine at Duluth, then wintered at Chequamegon Bay (La Pointe, Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) on western Lake Superior, North West.

September 12:   The Griffon sailed from the St. Ignace mission at Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) for Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin), to collect furs.  Griffon then sailed for Niagara.  Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687), however, continued south along the Wisconsin shore of Lake Michigan (aka. Lake Illinois).

September 15:   Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Dulhut, Duluth) (1636-1710) claims to have met at a Grand Council with the Ojibwa, Dakota Sioux, Assiniboines, and Crees, where peace was concluded.

November 1:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) met (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian, at the St. Joseph River at the southern end of Lake Michigan (aka. Lake Illinois) where they built Fort Miami.  Both men then ascended the St. Joseph and Illinois River to Lake Peoris.  Using 30 Sokoni Abenaki, they built Fort Crevecoeur on the upper Illinois.  Father (I)-Louis Hennepin (1626–1705), Flemish (Belgium) Recollect friar, was part of this expedition.




(I)-Michel Accault aka Ako, Acau, Dacanand d'Acau, d-1702, a French trader, married the daughter of a Kaskaskia chief while on the upper Mississippi, the next few years.  Others suggest married about 1690 Illinois Aramedinchone daughter Rouensa who was also known as Marie Rouensa b-1677 Kaskaskia and d-June 1725, 2nd marriage 1693/94 Marie Pinchieoua daughter Michel Kaskaskia, 3rd marriage 1701 Kaskaskia Marie Suzanne.

(I)-Daniel Greysolon Dulhut (Duluth or Du Lhut) (1639-1710) followed Lake Superior to its southern shore and entered Brule River, that he ascended to portage to upper Lake Saint Croix.  He followed the Saint Croix River to the Mississippi that he descended almost to the mouth of the Wisconsin River.  They rescued three captive Frenchemen from the Dakota including Father Louis Hennepin.  He then went down the Mississippi River and up the Wisconsin River, portaging to the Fox River to Green Bay, Michigan.  He wintered Fort Michilimackinac.  He found himself classified as a renegade and violator of the 1676 edict banning trade beyond the colony.  He in effect was classified as a coureurs des bois.  He returned to France to clear his name and never again explored beyond this expedition limits.

Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) is a servant of the Jesuit's at Sault Ste Marie when he became a coureur de bois in the Great Lakes region.

Charles Latour of Acadia had many Indian wives and Metis children one of who was Stephen Latour.  He traveled the woods with 18-20 other Coureurs des Bois and had no commitment to women or children.

Virginia, issued the first slave code law that would become the standard for the Americas.  Slaves and children of slaves are bound for life (A Roman Law).  Written permission is needed to carry arms or to leave the masters land (A feudal Law).  

During the period of 1680 to 1799, the Hudson Bay Company indentured 'Hospital Boys' for the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) for terms of seven years. Hospital boys were poor children, orphans, children from low countries, children of foreign extraction or children whose parents were unable to send them to schools. These were residential schools where children were taught to live good industrious lives in that station of life to which God called them, and education would be the means of subduing vice, irreligious and subversive tendencies which might be prevalent. Children who were not free of vermin or noise some disease are expelled. By 1684, ten Hospital Boys were on the Hudson Bay slave rolls. Their age being fourteen or fifteen years old. Cruelty, bulling and flogging were quite common, and few completed their apprenticeship.

By 1680 there were as many as 500 Coureurs des Bois in the woods around Lake Superior.

It is suggested that the Cree were capturing female Chipewyans about this time, and they were first known to the English at York Factory.

The Assiniboin are trading English goods from the Hudson Bay with the Mandan of North Dakota.
The French established 'La Compagnie du Nord' to consolidate their trade and drive the English from the North.  A conference held in New France to plot the capture of the Hudson Bay Company was attended by (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710), (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseillier (1618-1696), and all significant persons of New France.   

The Iroquois (Seneca) gathered an army of 500 and added 100 Miami to march on the Illini at Fort Crevecoeur.  The Illini retreated west of the Mississippi.  500 Tamora, Espeminkia and Maroua decided to stay and fight but were destroyed.  This battle of the Grand Kaskaskia, (Illinois) lasted 8 days. 

Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut commanded at Fort Michilimackinac, and the Reverend Father (I)-Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), the Dutch (Belgium) Recollet, attempted to claim personal credit for all L'hut's accomplishments.  Reverend (I)-Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), a Belgium Recollet,  personally claimed to have traveled from the mouth of the Illinois River down to the mouth of the Mississippi and then returned; a journey of over thirty two hundred miles in thirty days. The Natives claimed he could only make eighteen miles a day by canoe, and Francis Parkman reported that the Reverend Father is the most impudent of liars. Hennepin was noted for being vainglorious and his writings were self-serving and embellishments.  There is no doubt that Father Hennepin never traveled to the mouth of the Mississippi River.  The Natives considered lying as the worst sort of evil.  For offering La Salle’s narrative as his own and for claiming to have discovered the mouth of the Mississippi, Hennepin was exiled from New France.  The Church at this time believed it is important that no sinners, especially those evil Coureurs des Bois, should receive any recognition, as good cannot come from evil.  The Natives, however, classed L'hut as stern and resolute in all his ways, always just, never defrauded or derided, and as always keeping his word.  Even Governor Vaudreuil grudgingly stated that L'hut was a very honest man.  The same could not be said of many of the other clergy.

Father (I)-Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), the Dutch (Belgium) Recollet recorded in the upper Mississippi they had killed 7-8 big wild turkeys, bison (buffalo), deer, beavers, fish and bears.

The Iroquois again attacked the allies of New France, including the Illinois and Miami tribes south of Lake Michigan (aka. Lake Illinois).  This would continue for the next four years.  Some believe the Roman Catholic Church instigated these attacks.  Father Enjalran is at Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin) and Father Pierson is at Mackinaw, New France, Michigan.

At Charlton Depot, Charlton Island, James Bay is established in the Bay of the North.  John Nixon of the Hudson Bay Post is instructed by London to raise pigs to economize on food.

The French report there are about 600 Coureurs des Bois corrupting the Indians with brandy and being a bad influence on the youth of the colony.  Intendant Jean Talon had called them bandits, whereas the Church called them outlaws.  About this time the Ojibwa Metis or Coureurs des Bois are working three independent regions.  Some are migrating along the northern shore of Lake Superior, others along the south shore, and a third group are going south into the Green Bay area New France (Wisconsin) and beyond.  The Lake Superior Metis normally returned to Sault Ste Marie, New France to obtain trade goods, while some returned to the St. Lawrence Valley, Quebec.  Small groups of Ojibwa adopted these Coureurs des Bois and began to specialize in the fur business as middlemen to the Cree.  The northern Ojibwa Metis became highly dependent on the fur trade, abandoning their agricultural roots. 

A French officer described them this way:  The Peddlers, called Coureurs des Bois, depart from here every year with several canoes of merchandise which they dispose of among all the Savage Nations of the Continent in exchange for beaver-skins.  I saw 25-30 of these canoes (50 to 90 men) return with heavy cargoes, each canoe manned by two or three men carrying twenty hundred weight (40 packs of beaver-skins which are worth a hundred crows a piece).  These canoes have been a year and a half out.  You would be amazed if you saw how lewd these Peddlers are when they return, how they feast and game and how prodigal they are, not only in their cloths, but upon women.  Such of them that are married have the wisdom to retire to their own homes but the bachelors act just as our East-India-Men and Pirates do.  They lavish, eat, drink and play all away as long as the goods hold out.  When this is all gone they sell their embroidery, their lace and their cloths.  This done they are forced to go upon a new voyage for subsistence.  It is noteworthy that they were the navigators of a continent, 'the very first place' as Champlain highlighted, but they failed to carry their Christianity to the Savages.  They discovered the Savages lived Christian Principles rather than preaching its Platitudes, and they converted to the Savages ideology.  

These groups of Ojibwa are organized into maternal clans, usually organized under totemic animal names.

Eastern Indian Canoes
Ojibwa Canoe The southern Ojibwa Metis maintained the traditional balance between trade, agricultural, fishing and hunting.  Both groups retained their skills in the manufacturing of canoe and snow shoes for trade.

The French would take to the canoe like river rats.  They invented names for the crew, Avant or bowman, Milieu or middleman, Gouverail or sternsman.  Boutman is one who can handle the bow or stern.

Eastern Indian Snowshoes
Ojibwa snowshoes The snowshoe is of equal importance to the canoe, one for summer travel the other for winter travel. The snowshoe was also a great trade item.



Captain Thomas Draper of the Albemarle is instructed to establish a trading post at the mouth of the Severn River in the southwestern Hudson Bay.  He was warned that the Severn Indians were more rude and barbarous than the Company men were used to dealing with in James Bay.  New Severn, for a time, was called Churchill Fort.

A Dutch journal states, it is said there is not an Indian Fort between Canada and Maryland where there is not a Jesuit who teaches and advises the Indians.

Governor John Nixon continued to send seeds to the Hudson Bay posts to experiment hoping to cut costs of shipping food stuffs to the Bay.  The first successful crop was turnips and coleworts. 

January 4:  (I)-Francois St. Michel dit Rosiers b-1656 married January 4, 1680 Quebec (Tanguay says to Marie Madeleine Berthelot b-1662 however (II)-Marie Madeleine b-1662 daughter (I)-Andre Berthelot (1633-1687) and (III)-Marie Gasnier married 1st. 1677 Pierre Prevost, 2nd January 9, 1685 Joseph Pare and 3rd November 5, 1725 Noel Delessard) It is more likely he married (II)-Marie Artaut, Metis, b-1667 who claims to have married Michel des Rosiers 1680, being the daughter (I)-Pierre Artaut b-1630 and Louise Sauvagesse. 

January 5:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) reached the Indian village of Pimitoui on Lake Peoria.  They began construction of Fort Crevecoeur.   (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) with (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, built Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois River, some sixty miles from the Mississippi.  It is destroyed this year by the men who built it.  Some suggest it was built and destroyed 1682.

January 5:   (I)-Michel Accault (Ako) (d-1702) and Rene Calcelier,  exploring south of Du Luth, built Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois River near Lake Peoria.

February 9:   (I)-Michel Accault (Ako) d-1702; Antoine Auguelle (Picard du Gray), Recollect Missionary Father; and Father (I)-Louis Hennepin, (1626–1705)  Flemish (Belgium) Recollect friar, explored the Mississippi to the Dakotas.

March 1:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) departed Fort Crevecoeur for Montreal, Quebec and discovered the fate of the Griffon which disappeared in 1679, en route to Niagara.  (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, remained at Fort Crevecoeur.

April 11:   The (I)-Michel Accault, d-1702 expedition encountered 120 Dakota, including Narrhetoba and Aquipaquestin who escorted them to their village at Lake Mille Lacs.

April 11:  Father Louis Hennipen (1626-1705) and two Frenchmen, traveling to the upper Mississippi, are captured by the Dakota and carried off as slaves.  The Dakota Sioux holds a Recollet , two Frenchmen, and Reverend Father (I)-Louis Hennepin (1626–1705), Flemish (Belgium) Recollect friar, captive for several months at Mille Lacs, Minnesota.  These captives learned that the Assiniboin are located at Rainy Lake this year. 

June:   Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Dulhut, Duluth) (1636-1710) ascended the Bois Brule River from Lake Superior to its source and the St. Croix River to the Mississippi.

July:   A Native guide led Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut and four French to the Brule River and Upper St. Croix Lake where they established a trading post at the mouth of the Pigeon River.  Some say it was 1679 Fort Kaministiquia (wandering River), a.k.a. Caministiguya.  Others say this fort was built in1683.  They then traveled to the Mississippi to a Dakota Sioux village where he is informed of the enslavement of Father (I)-Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), a Belgium Recollet, and his companions, Antoine de Gay Augel and (I)- Michel Accault (d-1702).  He found and freed the slaves on July 25, 1680.  The city of Duluth is named after him, although Intendant Jacques Duchesneau would consider him the Chief among the Coureurs des Bois (the intent is to classify him as chief among the sinners).  He remained in the Territories for the next ten years, thus avoiding imprisonment.  The Dakota Sioux, who solicited trade with the French, gives Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut a birch bark map of the Mississippi.

July 22:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) at Fort Frontenac  (Kingston, Ontario) learned that his men at Fort Crevecoeur mutinied and destroyed the Fort.  

July 23:    (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) departed Fort Frontenac  (Kingston, Ontario) in haste for la Ville d'Etroit (Village at the Straits) (Fort Detroit), area of New France (Michigan) en route, learning from the Potawatoni that the Griffin had sunk in Lake Ontario in a storm. 

July 25:   Du Luth and four men meet Father (I)-Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), a Belgium Recollet,  220 leagues south of Mille Lacs village, returning to the village by August.

September 11:   Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Dulhut, Duluth) (1636-1710) and Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), the Dutch (Belgium) Recollet, returned to Michilimackinac, New France to winter, and (I)-Michel Accault, d-1702, winters with the Dakota in the Indian Territory.  

September 16:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) arrived at Sault Ste Marie, New France.  He failed to find (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian, at Michilimackinac, New France, so he pressed on for the St. Joseph River, arriving at the ruins of Fort Crevecoeur in early December.  He continued down the Illinois River to the Mississippi with still no word of (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian.

October 14:  Sorak8a, marriage, (I)-Abraham Cote ou Botte dit Sorak8a de Dieppe married Marie A8endea, Onontaise sauvagesse.




John Facher married Chippewa County, New France (Michigan), Cecilia Ottinger.

Father John Morain, a Jesuit is a missionary at Senecas Country 1681 to 1684.

Elizabeth Nalridge had her Hudson Bay Company payments cut, as she had several bastards when her husband was in the North West Territories (Canada). 

Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) was in the western Great Lakes and at Sault Ste Marie, New France with Jesuit Father Pierre Bailloguet some time before 1681.  This year he was released from jail in Montreal, Quebec for trading illegally.  He was a coureur de bois formally a servant of the Jesuits.

King Louis XIV (1643–1715) decreed  no hunting in the woods from January 15 to April 15 and no trading with the Natives.  In protest, the Coureurs des Bois began a physiological campaign of rumors that the merchandise was poisoned and the plague had come to Montreal, Quebec and the Trois Riviers, Quebec.  

The London Committee sent to Bottom Bay (James Bay) one male goat, one female goat, and one sow with piggy, hoping to increase the comfort of the people and for the good of the Factory, in order to reduce the need for provisions.

Governor John Nixon of Albony complained that the drunken, unruly characters sent to him were totally unfit for service.  As a result, in 1682, orphan boys as young as 14 years were sent out under a 7 year indenture scheme.  They had no choice. 

The French King was advised that all the families in New France were engaged in trade with the Coureurs des Bois. The King granted amnesty to the Coureurs des Bois and promised to allow 25 Trade Passports yearly to 25 canoes with three men to trade with the savages.  The Metis and Coureurs des Bois had effectively renounced any citizenship with France and therefore paid little attention to French dictates.

Smallpox again visited the Ojibwa at Sault Ste Marie, New France.

Jean Baptiste Colbert (1619–83), French statesman, was forced to admit failure in trying to curb the Metis and Coureurs des Bois in the west.  He admitted it would be impossible to punish them all, even if it had been possible to apprehend them.  Therefore, a Royal Edict was issued to all Coureurs des Bois granting amnesty, provided they return to the colony and adhere to a new trade licensing system.  Twenty-five permits are to be granted for 3 men per canoe or a total of 75 men each year for the estimated 1,000 to 2,000 traders, and no one was to receive a trade permit two years in a row.   One wonders who Colbert's advisors were, either that or he was on drugs.  Needless to say this program was a total failure.  Fort St. Ignace was built this year on Mackinac Island in an attempt to control the trade.

The majority of North Western Indians allied with the Coureurs des Bois because they were so numerous, they were in their midst,  treated them as equals and married their daughters.  The English refused to adapt themselves to any Indian custom or culture, and the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) was too far away to be of serious concern.

January:    (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) arrived at Fort Saint Joseph and encouraged the Miami and Illinois to unite against the Iroquois to help promote French interests in the area.

January 23:   Charlesbourg, birth (II)-Jacques Galarneay, Metis died November 26, 1744, Ste Foye son (I)-Jacques Galarneau born 1642 and Jacqueline, Heron born 1645 epouse May 9, 1706, Montreal, Quebec, Jean Picard;  married November 18, 1704 Quebec Marguerite Panneton

March 20:  Lorette, Quebec, birth, (II)-Denis Joseph Couturier, Metis son (I)-Jacques Couturier b-1646 and Catherine Annennontak, Huronne, b-1649, veuve 1662 de Jean Durand (1636-1671); 1st married January 11, 1712 Becancour (Batiscan), Quebec Catherine Proteau born June 28, 1691, died March 31, 1717 Ste Anne de la Perade (dans l'eglise) dauighter (I)-Luc Proteau (1668-1752) and (II)-Marie Madeleine Germain (1670-1757);  2nd marriage February 21, 1718 Cap-Sante, Quebec, Angelique LeTellier (Tellier), b-1699, died December 7, 1729 daughter (I)-Francois Letellier; 3rd marriage April 13, 1733 Deschambault, Quebec (II)-Therese Hamel, b-1707, died March 14, 1737 St. Pierre les Becquets, veuve de Jean Tousignan, daughter (II)-Jean Francois Hamel..  

May:   Royal Ordinance of King Louis XIV (1643–1715) at Versailles established the Conge de Traite (Trade Passport).  The Trade Passport allowed each year, 25 canoe; each manned by three men to go into the interior to trade with the Savages.  An amnesty is granted to the Coureurs des Bois for fur trading in the West if they obtain a license.  The objective is to bring these sinners under control.  Unlicensed fur trading, however, is still forbidden.  The fine is now branding for a first offense and life in the Mediterranean galleys for a second offense.  This Church inspired decree has no impact on the fur trade.  This decree effectively created the Voyagers who were hired by traders under contract to fill the passport requirements.  Voyagers were also called engages or Cano tiers.  Voyagers are not to be confused with the Coureurs des Bois who are illegally engaged in trade without a passport.  It is noteworthy that Metis are excluded from the passport requirements as they were considered savages at this time.  These Trade Passports would be issued out of Montreal, Quebec, Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) and, later, la Ville d'Etroit (Fort Detroit), New France (Michigan) and Louisiana.  

The number of Trade Passports was increased to 400, but still was not adequate to cover the men in the field and those coming and going. This would suggest more than 1,200 legal men are conducting trade this year.

May 22:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) started for Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) where he finally contacted (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian.

(I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) made claims that Daniel Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Dulhut, Duluth) (1636-1710) was involved in illegal activities in the west, calling him the 'King of the Outlaws', forcing him to return to France to clear his name in the summer of 1782.   This is after he saved the LaSalle party from the Dakota.

August 11:   Montreal, Quebec permit by Robert Cavelier de la Salle to sieur Rene Cavelier to equip two or three men to the countries of KIKapous, 8tagamy etc. but defense with the 8ta8ats. Copy that a clerk of Montreal, Quebec made on September 4, 1781, signed Etude Mauge  

October 15:  Father Zenoble, a Recollet is at Fort Miami, now St. Joseph, Michigan, he had accompanied La Salle on his previous expedition 1679-1680 to this region.

November 13:   M. Du Chesneau defined two types of Coureurs des Bois:  one who goes to the original haunts of the beaver, to the Assinibouets, Nadoussieux, Miamis, Illinois, and others taking 2-3 years. The second, who are not so numerous, go to Long Sault, Petite Nation, and Mackilimackinac, New France (Michigan) carrying trade goods to the Indians and French (Coureurs des Bois) in exchange for these furs. It is not easy to catch either the one or the other, as they easily receive intelligence, and the woods and rivers afford them great facilities to escape justice.

November 13:   The French were advised that the Ottawa People obtained most of their furs from the Cree, Assiniboine, Ojibwa and Dakota Sioux Nations.  It defies logic why the French would later encourage the Dakota Sioux to war with their neighbors.  Some suggest the Europeans hate peace and love war, it being their vary nature.  Some suggest this is also true of the English.

December 27:  (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) went to join (I)-Henri de Tonty (1650-1704) an Italian Explorer who is forty leagues into the Miamis Country on the River Chicagou (Chekagou) (Des Plaines) in the Country of the Mascoutens. 




Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, (1644-1687) at the juncture of the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico, took possession of the Mississippi Valley and all land watered by its tributaries in the name of France.

(II)-Richard Denis son (I)-Nicolas Denis; married about 1682 Anne Parabego (savage).

(II)-Jean Fafard dit Jean Fafart dit Maconce or Macons, b-1657, died December 21, 1756, Fort Detroit, is a voyageur and interpreter and is at Sault St. Marie (Michigan) this year and he married (III)-Marguerite Couc alias Couck, dit Lafleur, Metis, birth June 1, 1664, daughter (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1690) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699)..

King Louis XIV (1643–1715) of France granted a charter to New France for the Bay of the North, clearing the way for its occupation.  

At this time Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut, (I)-Michel Accault (d-1702), Antoine de Gay Augelle, Lesuer, (I)-Nicholas Perrot Nicholas Perrot (Pere), also Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1718), a Coureurs des Bois, and Jacques de Noyen are a few of the Voyagers who are working the North West Territories trading routes.  

Compagnie du Nord or Compagnie Francaise du la Baie d'Hudson is established by associates (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710), Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687), (I)-Louis Jolliet (Joliette)- a Coureurs des Bois  (1645-1700) and Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Chateauguay (1626-1685), to challenge English control of of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) trade. The Hudson Bay Company created Fort Nelson (York) at the mouth of the Nelson and Hayes Rivers in a swamp on the Bay of the North (Manitoba), and Fort Albany at the mouth of the Albany River, James Bay a few years earlier.  Fort Nelson (York) is taken by Compagnie du Nord and Jean Baptiste Chouart.  (II)-Jean Baptiste Chouart, b-1654 son  (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseilliers, (1618/21-1696) is commander in charge.  York Factory is renamed Fort Bourbon, and the Nelson River is named St. Therese River.  The French reported that the pelts from the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) are much better and can be obtained at a very good price.  It is noteworthy that the French considered the Bay of the North as being within the domain of the French Crown.

The Committee in London was advised by John Nixon of Bottom Bay (James Bay) that the goats died and that it was more trouble raising either goats or pigs.  Nevertheless, pigs and goats continued to arrive.   As for the garden, turnips were a favorite as were peas, radishes, lettuce, mustard, spinach, cabbage and colewort. Spruce sap beer is consumed by the Bay men to prevent scurvy.  This they learned from the Indians.  London requested a bottle or two of the Spruce sap beer.

The Jesuits have been encouraging the Iroquois to kill the Illinois and Jean de Lamerville, a Jesuit wrote "The great success that God is pleased to grant to the weapons of the Iroquois makes them very proud, brave, and enterprising.  Last year they Brought 700 Illinois captives all of whom they keep alive.  They killed and ate over 600 others on the spot, without counting those whom they burned along the road.  They saved the children who could live without the Milk of their mothers whom they had killed; but the others were cruelly roasted and devoured.  It is related that they tied living men and women to the stakes, and as fast as their flesh became roasted, they cut it off, and ate it." 

The Iroquois, feeling confident after the battle of Grand Kaskaskia, (Illinois) in 1680, attacked Fort St. Louis de la Louisiane, Illinois, fighting for 6 days and suffering heavy losses before retreating.

(I)-Henri de Tonty (1650-1704) an Italian Explorer commanded the French Fort St. Louis de La Louisiane, Illinois.

(I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) reported the Illinois had the horse that he assumed they stole from the Spanish in New Mexico.  The use the horse to kill the wild cattle (bison).

January 14:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687),  (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, and Jacques Bourdon d'Autray (1652-1688) set out on an expedition down the Mississippi River.  (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) with a party of 23 Frenchmen, 18 Abnaki and Mohegan, ten squaws and three children, in a dozen canoes, set out from Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin), for the mouth of the Mississippi.

The names of the French included:
M. de La Salle, Commandant
Father Zenoble, a Recollet
Sieur de Tonty, Captain
Sieur de Boisrondet
Jacques Bourdon, Sieur d'Autray
Jacques La Meterie, Notary
Jean Michel, Surgeon
Jacques Cochois
Anthoine Bassard
Jean Masse
Pierre You
Colin Crevel
Jean du Lignon
Andre Henault
Gabriel Barbier
Pierre Migneret
Nicolas de La Salle
Andre Baboeuf
Pierre Buret
Louis Baron
Jean Pignabel
La Violette
Pierre Prud' homme, Armorer

The names of the Savages includes:
Captain Clance

The women and children include:
Huron woman
Three Nipissings women
Five Abenakis women
Ojibwa woman
Three Children

January 23:   Permit granted for a treaty with 8ta8acs by M. de Frontenac to sieur du Hautmenil and license to send a canoe equipped with 3 men. signed Etude Mauge

January 23:   Permit by M. de Frontenac to M. Dollier de Casson, Superior de Seminaries de Montreal, Quebec dated January 23, 1682, to aid in the construction because of the English.  Permit for a canoe and three men.  Signed Etude Mauge

January 25:  (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) joined (I)-Henri de Tonty (1650-1704) at Pimiteoui that is 60 leagues from the River Colbert (Mississippi).

February 6:  The  (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) party reached the Mississippi which he named the Colbert River. 

March 13:  The (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) expedition down the Mississippi built a fort near the Akansa tribe that numbered 15 to 20 thousand souls.

March 22:   Agreement by permit among Edmond de Sueve, seigneur and party de Saint Anne de la Perade, Jean de Broyeux, Jean Baptiste Crevier, sieur Duvernay, de Batiscan, and Aubuchon's children, all of Montreal, subject to the conditions of M. de Frontenac sieur de Broyeux completed January 23.  Permission to equip one canoe with three men in order to proceed to make relations with the Nations Outauoises.  Signed Etude Adhemar  

April 1:   Conventions between Charles de Couaigne and Claude Tardit, merchants, owners Permit for the 8ta8as, and Antoine Villedieu, Joseph Loisel and Simon Guillory which are made equipped to exploit trade.  Signed Etude Maugue  

April:   The (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) expedition reached the Mississippi delta.  They claimed all lands that drained into the Mississippi River and its tributaries for France and named the lands Louisiana, after Louis XIV.

(I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) and party visited the Town of Taensas on the Mississippi; who were sun worshipers- (a form of religion found among the Aztec).  La Salle had never before encountered this religion.  This band also practiced human sacriface like the Aztec. 

April 7:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687), (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian,  P. Sieur D'Autray,  Francois de Boisrondet, Jean Bourdon,  Jacques Cauchois, Pierre You, Gilles Meucret, Jean Michel (Surgeon), Jean Mas, Jean Dulignon, La Metairie (Notary), Nicolas De La Salle and Zenobe (Recollect) d-1689, reached the Gulf of Mexico.  Some claim Jean du Lignon, sieur de La Mirande (1658-1690) was among this group.

April 9:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) claimed the territory for France and named the area Louisiana.  They began the return trip, on April 10, to Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan).

April 17:  Conventions between Simonne Cottee, woman of Pierre Soumande, commercant, also acting in the name of François Hazeur, merchant, of Quebec, and Denis Turpin, Ignace, Herbert and Nicolas Desroches, for exploitation trade with the 8ta8ats Permit by Charles d.Ailleboust of Musseaux by Mr. de Frontenac.  Signed Etude Maugue

April 22:   Conventions between M. Francois Jarretde Vercheres, Joseph Perrot dit Cilledaigue, de I’ile d’Orleans, Charles de la Carmellerie, de Vercheres, and Michel Robert dit la Picard, du Cap de la Trinite, for exploitation trade with 8ta8ats, Permit by  M. de Vercheres by M. de Drontenac.  Etude Mauge.

May 29:   Conventions between  Jean Baptiste Crevier, Jean de Broyeux et Jean Aubuchon, for exploitation trade with 8ta8ats, Permit by M. de Vercheres by M. de Drontenac.  Etude Mauge.  

A charter and French Government sanction was granted to the Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson (North Bay) under the direction of Charles Aubert de la Chesnaye (1632-1702).  It was also called Compagnie du Nord and included  the following associates:  (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseillier (1618-1696), (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687), (I)-Louis Jolliet (Joliet) (1645-1700); all basically Coureurs des Bois  (1645-1700) and Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Chateauguay (1626-1685).  Their mission was to challenge the English control of the Hudson Bay trade.

June:   Zachariah Gillam (1636-1682), the Boston seaman for H.B.C., set sail with five ships for the Hudson Bay.  Benjamin Gillam (1662-1706) and son, in the Bachelor's Delight- a rival expedition, departed earlier.  Also at sea are: (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseillier (1618-1696), and his son (II)-Jean Baptiste Chouart, now sailing for France under the name The North Company; all going to the Hudson Bay.

August 3:  Sorel, marriage Francois Singerny also St. Cerny and Delpee to (II)-Marie Angelique Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, (1661-1750) daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1665) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699).

August 18:   Benjamin Gillam (1662-1706) and son (non-HBC traders) reached the Nelson River and established a post.  

August 20:   (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseillier (1618-1696) sailed into Hayes River. 

August 26:   The French discovered Benjamin Gillam in Nelson River and took his crew prisoner.  

The French attack on the Hudson Bay Company is highly successful.  The French captured the Bachelors Delight under the command of Ben Gillam.  The sinking of the Prince Rupert resulted in the death of Zachariah Gillam and fourteen of his crew.  Ben Gallium's Fort fell and his furs are confiscated.  Jean Baptiste Chouart assumes control of the Hudson Bay Company forts.  The prisoners sent in triumph to Quebec included Governor Bridgar and Ben Gillam of the Hudson Bay Company.  

(II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseillier (1618-1696), having secured the Hudson Bay trade, sailed for Quebec with Benjamin Gilliam (1662-1682) and John Bridgar, Governor of Port Nelson, a survivor of the Prince Rupert sinking.  Jean Baptiste Chouart remained in charge of Port Nelson as its Governor.

The victors over the English, (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseillier (1618-1696), for their exploits, are fined and deported to France by the bumbling (I)-Joseph-Antoine Le Febvre de de La Barre (1622–88).  La Barre also released the English Governor and his ships with diplomatic apologies in defiance of the French King.  The Hudson Bay Company sued Chief Factor Henry Sergeant for cowardice and 20,000 pounds for the lackadaisical surrender of Fort Albany to the French.

August 30:   Sorel, Quebec, baptism, (III)-Francois Couc, Metis, son (II)-Louis Couc dit Montour, born 1659, Metis, and Madeleine Sacokie, 2nd married, (II)-Louis, January 7, 1688, Saint Francis du Lac a Jeannie Quigesig8k8e, born 1656.  

October:  (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) has built a fort on the portage of the River of the Islinois, where I have left thirty men with Sieur de Tonty.  The desertion of my men, my losses and the war waged by the Iroquois against the Illinois and the Miamy, have prevented me from building any others.  This commission from the French King gave La Salle a five year's monopoly of the trade, as against all other persons including the Jesuits, on the Great River (Mississippi) and its affluents.  The Jesuits are still inciting war hoping to ruin La Salle.  The Jesuit Father Allouez told the Iroquois that Sieur Tonty was an Italian and not a Frenchman and ought not to be trusted.  This also implied if they killed him their would be lesser consequences.  The Iroquois were give letters saying they were authorized to make war. 

October 21:   The British H.B.C. ship, Prince Rupert I, sank October 21, 1682 near Port Nelson.  Zachariah Gillam (1636-1682), the Boston seaman, and nine crew members are drowned.

December 30:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) returned to the Illinois River and built Fort Saint Louis de la Louisiane, Illinois, near the town of La Salle.




Sacokie, marriage (II)-Louis Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, son (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur (1624-1665) and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, sauvagesse, (1631-1699); married 1683 Sacokie Marie Sauvagesse.

(I)-Jean Couture arrived Quebec and decided to become a Coureur de Bois and went to Fort Saint Louis on the upper Illinois River.

Jean Fafard married Chippewa County, New France (Michigan), Marguerite Couc.

(I)-Antoine Laumet de La Mothe Sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730) arrived New France.

Daniel Gretsolon sieur Dulhut established Fort Caministigoyan (Thunder Bay, Ontario.

Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1657-1704) was with a convey of 15 canoes from Montreal, Quebec to Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin) and the Mississippi River.

(II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) could no longer trust the French and again switched sides to the English to again secure the Bay of the North's trading positions between France and England until his death in about 1710. He convinced the French Governor Jean Baptiste Chouart to turn the Hudson Bay over to the English. The French put a price on Radisson's head but he traded Hudson Bay until 1686 when he retired to London where he died 1710.

Mrs Sergeant wintered 1683 at Moose Factory (Ontario).

Jacques hired Pierre Vaux in partnership with Jean Lefevre and Jean Dupuy for le voyage des 8ta8ats.  His father-in-law Jacques arrived, and his son-in-law's father Jacques Hubert were hiring men during the 1690's for le voyage des 8ta8ats. 

It is reported that 60 Coureurs des Bois are trading with the Dutch and English, and that greatly irritated the French.

The Chief Factor of the Hudson Bay is Henry Sergeant (1683-1686).  The first English woman wife of Henry Sergeant arrived in James Bay with her companion, Mrs. Maurice, and their maid.  As a result, the Hudson Bay created a policy that reads:  Upon forfeiture of wages not to suffer any women to come within any of our factories.  It would be three centuries before a woman is placed in charge of a Hudson Bay post or store.  The London head office instructed Chief Factor Henry Sergeant (1683-1686) at Albany to treat the Indians with justice and humility but not to fraternize with them.  This ruling is based on a belief that Indian woman would prejudice the company affairs by debauching the servants, embezzling  goods and exhausting provisions. 

Oliver Morel de La Durantaye (1640/44-1716) with 30 French soldiers, took command of Fort Missilimakinac (Michilimackinac), New France (Michigan) until 1690.      

Bumbling Governor, Le Febvre de La Barre of New France, wrote:  There are 60 miserable French deserters (Coureurs des Bois) at Orange, Manatte and other Dutch places under English command, more than half of whom deserve hanging.  Fur smuggling is still carried out at Fort Frontenac  (Kingston, Ontario) and Fort Chambly in spite of ordnances protesting the trade and it carries the death penalty.

Intendant (I)-Jacques de Meulles d-1703 reported that the citizens of New France only attend mass 3-4 times a year.

Father (I)-Philippe Pierson, a Galle-Beggian (1642-1688) is claimed to be with the Nadouessious who live 100 leagues beyond Lake Superior.

In Islinois Country the colonies of Canada seven French canoes are attacked and pillaged by the Iroquois.

All Frenchmen withdrew from the Senecas Country.

February 1:   A four point decree is issued in New France:

February 15:  Quebec, birth, (II)-Jeanne Angelique St. Michel, Metis died April 13, 1746,  daughter (I)-Francoise St. Michel dit Rosiers b-1656 and (II)-Marie Artaut, Metis, b-1667; married 1699 Rene Frerot

March 23:  (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian,departed Fort Saint Louis de la Louisiane, Illinois and explored a hundred leagues across the praries..

March 27:   In Quebec an agreement between Francois Chorel de Saint Romain merchant at Champlain, Jean Baptiste Mongoden de Bellefontaine, Francois Poisson and J. Aubuison de Saillies permit to send two canoes of 3 men each to voyage to the country of 8ta8tois.

May:   The Iroquois attacked the Indian allies of France and demanded the expulsion of (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) from Fort Saint Louis.

August:   Louis Henri de Baugy took command of Fort Saint Louis on Governor Le Febvre de La Barre's orders.  Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois River, some sixty miles from the Mississippi, being destroyed in 1861, is rebuilt and named Fort St. Louis (also called Fort Pimiteoui). 

August 10:  The Gardeur Expedition departed Missilimakina for the Illinois.  The Expedition included Rene Le Gardeur, esquire, sieur de Beauvais, Eustache Provost, Jean Desrosiers aka Dutremble, and Francois Lyucas on their own account and Joseph de Montenon, sieur de La Rue, Anthoine Desrosiers, called La Fresnaye, Jacques Basten, Jean Pilotte, Martin Foisey, Laurent Lhyvemois, Jean Lahaye, Jacques Mongeaux, Lestang and Jean Haultdecouur.

September 2:   (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687) is ordered to France by bumbling Governor Le Febvre de La Barre out of fear that La Salle, a Coureurs des Bois, might threaten the fur business to Montreal, Quebec.

November:   Claude Greystone de La Tourette (1660-1716) built Fort Tourette at the mouth of the Omababika River on Lake Nipigon.

December 4:  The Gardeur Expedition arrived River Teakiky and were forced to winter.




(I)-Vincent d'Abbadie de St. Castin a pirate out of Acadia married Matilda Pidiwanskie (Abenaki) and had two known children, (II)-Anselme St. Casten, Metis b-1685 and (II)-Joseph Robardis St. Casten, Metis.

(III)-Marie Anne Denis daughter (II)-Richard Denis son (I)-Nicolas Denis: married Anne Parabego, sauvagesse

Nicolas Desroches, b-1652, a Coureur des Boise, by 1684 had spent many years exploring the Pays d'en Haut, the Upper Mississippi or generally northwest of Lake Superior.  He spent a number more years in this region before returning to Quebec. 

(I)-Nicholas Perrot (Pere) dit Turbal,  a.k.a. Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1718), a freeman ( Coureurs des Bois) who was humbled by (I)-Simon Francois Daumont de Saint Lusson, d-1677, in 1671, is asked by Governor Lefebvre de La Barre to join a peace mission to recruit several hundred warriors to fight the Iroquois.  You would think that, once burnt by the French, Perrot would not accept this commission.  He and Daniel Greystone with their army of Western Nations on their way to Fort Niagara learned that to make peace with the Iroquois, La Barrie had sacrificed the Western Nations.  This would have a profound impact on his credibility with the Western Nations.  

(I)-Jean Pere, a trader and Coureur de Bois out of Trois Rivieres, traveled the Riviere du Perray (Albany River) and reached the shores of Hudson Bay, is captured and taken to England but he returned to New France 1687 to continue his trading activities.

(I)-Francois Marie Perrot (1644-1691) is transferred to Acadia as Governor (1685-1687).  

Chief Factor Verner of Fort Rupert applied for permission for his wife Elinor to join him but it is denied by the H.B.C.

The English had been supplying guns to the Cree and Assiniboine to keep the other Indian tribes in line; so claimed the French who also supplied arms in trade.  This traditional divide and conquer mentality would inflict much harm between the Dakota Sioux and their neighbors.

Fort Albany (so named in 1683) was built 1674 by the HBC at the mouth of the Albany River aka Chichewan River is relocated 4 miles from the mouth of Albany River this year..

This year the H.B.C. shipped 300 flintlock muskets, 2,000 iron axes, 2,160 kaolin tobacco pipes, 3,000 tack knives and 5,000 butcher knives to Albany as trade goods.

(I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724),an apprentice clerk, arrived the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) with (II)-Pierre Esprit Chouart dit Radisson, Metis (1636-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart des Groseillier (1618-1696).  (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) was indentured at age seven or eight to the Company and, as a young boy, is eager to understand the Natives.  This is unusual for an Anglo or Saxon, although some contend he is part Celtic (Irish).  He learned Cree fluently and could communicate in Assiniboine.   (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) would spend the next 40 years (save 3 years) in the employ of the H.B.C.

Charles Greysolon de la Tourette built Fort La Maune on the north west shore of Lake Nipigon to stem the shift of trade to the English.  Both the Cree and the Assiniboine traded this Post.

Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut mentioned visiting the Nipigon River and Lake Ontario.  Greysolon is assigned responsibility for establishing peace between the Dakota Sioux and Assiniboine tribes.  Others suggest the Ojibwa established the peace.  The Cree and Assiniboine are becoming the middlemen in the fur trade, selling to both the English and French.  They had previously traded with the Ojibwa and Ottawa.  (I)-Nicolas Perrot (Pere)(1644-1718) is at Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin) this season.

February 4:  The Gardeur Expedition sent 4 men Jacques Baston, Francois Lucas, Lestang and Laurent Lhyvernois toward the Illinois to hunt for the expedition.

March 5:  The Gardeur Expedition journey down the River Teakiky and reached Fort St. Louis.

March 21:   (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649-1704), the Italian, and Louis Henri de Baugy repulsed an attack by the Iroquois for six days on Fort Saint Louis de la Louisiane, Illinois.

April 10:   An ordinance is issued prohibiting emigration from New France to the English colonies with a penalty of death.

April 14:   The bumbling Governor Le Febvre de La Barre is humiliated when King Louis XIV (1643–1715) orders him to restore Fort Frontenac  (Kingston, Ontario) to (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle (1643-1687).  La Salle was also commissioned to colonize the Mississippi Delta

July 30:   Governor Le Febvre de La Barre set out from Montreal with 700 French soldiers and 400 Indians to deal with the Iroquois.

August 29:   The Iroquois were encountered by the French/Indian alliance at Famine Cove on Lake Ontario.

September 5:   The Treaty of Famine Cove is achieved with peace between the French, the Iroquois and the Miamas, but not with the Illinois.

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