The settlement called the  Red River of The North, is dominated by Metis of French and Ojibwa origin,
During this historic period, the town begins receiving Metis of Cree and  Orkney origin, followed by the Scots.

METIS  ...1800-1802
METIS  ...1803-1804
METIS  ...1805-1808
METIS  ...1809-1811
METIS  ...1812-1814
METIS  ...1815-1815
METIS  ...1816-1817
METIS  ...1818-1820
METIS  ...1821-1823
METIS  ...1824-1827
METIS  ...1828-1832
METIS  ...1833-1835
METIS  ...1836-1847
METIS  ...1848-1849

METIS INDEX: ...Return to MAIN Metis INDEX

DIRECTORY: ...Return to MAIN HISTORY index

The Scots brought violence into the fur trade business. The Scots reveled in injustice and corrupt practices. The Scot- run North West Company is rooted in violence and intimidation during this period. So reports William Coltman in 1817.

This century belongs to the Metis of the North West, as they forge a new Nation.  This new Nation is neither European in nature, nor aboriginal, yet contained important elements of both.  The English considered the Metis to be too generous and more non-conforming than their civilized European relatives.  They are like their French, Scottish and English ancestors, in that they wanted to improve their economic, social and political standing.  They are like their Indian heritage, being visionary, philosophical, hospitable, generous, adaptive and, most importantly, they tried to live their beliefs.  Democracy is the essence of the Indian approach to life; and this carried over to their descendants- the Metis.  The Metis are of the Algonquian Nation, being primarily Ojibwa and Cree.  The Cree said of their mixed blood children, with a sense of pride: They are their own boss.  The Ojibwa said of their mixed blood children:  They are as burnt wood, and all agreed they are quick tempered and quick to fight, but quick to forgive and forget.  More than anything they loved nature: the buffalo hunt, music and dancing until dawn.  Family bonds are very strong, being deeply rooted in their Aboriginal tradition.  The Metis language is described as Bungi; being a mix of Ojibwa, French and Gaelic and Michif- a mix of French and Cree.

Clan Garneau is of this Metis stock, as is clan Thomas who arrived at Hudson Bay in 1789.  A Monsieur Gaunaux (Garneau), the stray, covered the Sault Ste Marie, La Pointe, Red Lake, Red River, and Pembina Territories in the 1780's and 1790's.  There is a real possibility that his father also traded the same territory.  One of Louis's grandsons claims his father lived and worked out of Sault Ste Marie, at one time, as a Chief Master for the North West Company.  Family tradition also suggests that Louis Gournon ,alias Gornow (Garneau), retired to Bay Mills, Michigan territory in 1921 after the demise of the North West Company.  This family tradition surely applies to the Cadotte grand parents rather than the Garneau grand parents. Louis Garneau would eventually settle at Bayfield Wisconsin near the Red Cliff Indian Reserve.  Bay Mills is now a Federal Indian Reservation in Chippewa County, with tribal headquarters at Brimley, Michigan; about twenty kilometers west of Sault Ste Marie.  Bay Mills proper, in the 1820's, is ten miles south east of Sault Ste Marie on the St. Mary River.  The Americans called this area to the Mississippi River, the Western Territories, and the Canadians called it the North West Territories.  The Louisiana Territory is to the west of the Mississippi, but many just referred to all the west as Indian Territory, and this more accurately reflected reality at the beginning of this century.

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