From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Social media is media designed to be disseminated through social interaction, created using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. Social media uses Internet and web-based technologies to transform broadcast media monologues (one to many) into social media dialogues (many to many). It supports the democratization of knowledge and information, transforming people from content consumers into content producers. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content". Businesses also refer to social media as user-generated content (UGC) or consumer-generated media (CGM). Social media utilization is believed to be a driving factor in the idea that the current period in time will be defined as the Attention Age.
Social media can be said to have three components;
- Concept (art, information, or meme).
- Media (physical, electronic, or verbal).
- Social interface (intimate direct, community engagement, social viral, electronic broadcast or syndication, or other physical media such as print).
Common forms of social media;
- Concepts, slogans, and statements with a high memory retention quotient, that excite others to repeat.
- Grass-Roots direct action information dissemination such as public speaking, installations, performance, and demonstrations.
- Electronic media with 'sharing', syndication, or search algorithm technologies (includes internet and mobile devices).
- Print media, designed to be re-distributed.
The use of the term "social media" has risen steadily since July 2006. At that time, this Wikipedia article on "social media" defined it as a term "used to describe media which are formed mainly by the public as a group, in a social way, rather than media produced by journalists, editors and media conglomerates." 
Chris Shipley (Co-founder and Global Research Director for Guidewire Group) is often considered the first person to have coined the term "social media" as we understand it today. The BlogOn 2004 conference, July 22-23, 2004, focused on the "business of social media." Shipley and Guidewire Group used the term "social media" in the months leading up to that event to discuss the coming together of blogging, wikis, social networks, and related technologies into a new form of participatory media.
The term was also used by Tina Sharkey (co-founder of iVillage, former SVP of AIM and Social Media, and now head of BabyCenter.com) in 1997 to describe a form of community-driven Internet content; and by Darrell Berry in 1995 to describe software systems (such as his multimedia MOO client, Matisse), which facilitate the collaborative building of community and the subjective experience of shared "space" via electronic media. He referred to such systems as "social media architectures'.
 Distinction from industrial media
Social media are distinct from industrial media, such as newspapers, television, and film. While social media are relatively inexpensive and accessible tools that enable anyone (even private individuals) to publish or access information, industrial media generally require significant resources to publish information. Examples of industrial media issues include a printing press or a government-granted spectrum license.
"Industrial media" are commonly referred to as "traditional", "broadcast" or "mass" media.
One characteristic shared by both social media and industrial media is the capability to reach small or large audiences; for example, either a blog post or a television show may reach zero people or millions of people. The properties that help describe the differences between social media and industrial media depend on the study. Some of these properties are:
- Reach - both industrial and social media technologies provide scale and enable anyone to reach a global audience.
- Accessibility - the means of production for industrial media are typically owned privately or by government; social media tools are generally available to anyone at little or no cost.
- Usability - industrial media production typically requires specialized skills and training. Most social media do not, or in some cases reinvent skills, so anyone can operate the means of production.
- Recency - the time lag between communications produced by industrial media can be long (days, weeks, or even months) compared to social media (which can be capable of virtually instantaneous responses; only the participants determine any delay in response). As industrial media are currently adopting social media tools, this feature may well not be distinctive anymore in some time.
- Permanence - industrial media, once created, cannot be altered (once a magazine article is printed and distributed changes cannot be made to that same article) whereas social media can be altered almost instantaneously by comments or editing.
Community media constitute an interesting hybrid of industrial and social media. Though community-owned, some community radios, TV and newspapers are run by professionals and some by amateurs. They use both social and industrial media frameworks.
In his 2006 book The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom, Yochai Benkler analyzed many of these distinctions and their implications in terms of both economics and political liberty. However, Benkler, like many academics, uses the neologism network economy or "network information economy" to describe the underlying economic, social, and technological characteristics of what has come to be known as "social media".
Andrew Keen criticizes social media in his book The Cult of the Amateur, writing, "Out of this anarchy, it suddenly became clear that what was governing the infinite monkeys now inputting away on the Internet was the law of digital Darwinism, the survival of the loudest and most opinionated. Under these rules, the only way to intellectually prevail is by infinite filibustering."
 Information outputs and human interaction
Primarily, social media depend on interactions between people as the discussion and integration of words to build shared-meaning, using technology as a conduit. Social media has been touted as presenting a fresh direction for marketing by allowing companies to talk with consumers, as opposed to talking at them.
Social media utilities create opportunities for the use of both inductive and deductive logic by their users. Claims or warrants are quickly transitioned into generalizations due to the manner in which shared statements are posted and viewed by all. The speed of communication, breadth, and depth, and ability to see how the words build a case solicits the use of rhetoric. Induction is frequently used as a means to validate or authenticate different users' statements and words. Rhetoric is an important part of today’s language in social media.
Companies have begun to use social media to communicate with consumers. Companies like Ford have leveraged social media web sites like Twitter to enhance their relationship with customers. They recently held the largest tweet-up to launch their new Ford Fiesta.
Social media are not finite: there is not a set number of pages or hours. The audience can participate in social media by adding comments, instant messaging or even editing the stories themselves. The new tools and applications online have not only created new ways to communicate and collaborate, but have also opened up new job positions and careers, due to the unique convergence of technology, marketing, and social media.
Social media can take many different forms, including Internet forums, weblogs, social blogs, wikis, podcasts, pictures, video, rating and bookmarking. Technologies include: blogs, picture-sharing, vlogs, wall-postings, email, instant messaging, music-sharing, crowdsourcing, and voice over IP, to name a few. Many of these social media services can be integrated via social network aggregation platforms like Mybloglog and Plaxo.
Examples of social media software applications include:
- Blogs: Blogger, LiveJournal, Open Diary, TypePad, WordPress, Vox, ExpressionEngine, Xanga
- Micro-blogging / Presence applications: fmylife, Jaiku, Plurk, Twitter, Tumblr, Posterous, Yammer
- Social networking: Bebo, BigTent, Elgg, Facebook, Geni.com, Hi5, LinkedIn, MySpace, Ning, Orkut, Skyrock,
- Social network aggregation: NutshellMail, FriendFeed
- Events: Upcoming, Eventful, Meetup.com
- Wikis: Wikipedia, PBwiki, wetpaint
- Social bookmarking (or social tagging): Delicious, StumbleUpon, Google Reader, CiteULike
- Social news: Digg, Mixx, Reddit, NowPublic
- Opinion sites: epinions, Yelp
- Photo sharing: Flickr, Zooomr, Photobucket, SmugMug, Picasa
- Video sharing: YouTube, Viddler, Vimeo, sevenload
- Livecasting: Ustream.tv, Justin.tv, Stickam, Skype
- Audio and Music Sharing: imeem, The Hype Machine, Last.fm, ccMixter
- Reviews and Opinions
- Product Reviews: epinions.com, MouthShut.com
- Business Reviews: Customer Lobby, yelp.com
- Community Q&A: Yahoo! Answers, WikiAnswers, Askville, Google Answers
- Media & Entertainment Platforms: Cisco Eos
- Virtual worlds: Second Life, The Sims Online, Forterra
- Game sharing: Miniclip, Kongregate
In recent years, numerous companies and brands have begun using the platforms and channels above to help market their products. Healthcare and pharma companies have been slower than many other industries to adopt these technologies due to regulatory concerns. Recently, this has changed with many healthcare and pharma companies using social media to communicate with physicians and patients.
 See also
- ^ Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael, (2010), Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, Issue 1, p. 59-68.
- ^ "Google Trends: social media," trends.google.com, http://www.google.com/trends?q=%22social+media%22&ctab=0&geo=all&date=all&sort=0
- ^ "Wikipedia: social media (9 July 2006)," wikipedia.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Social_media&oldid=62939074
- ^ Keen, Andrew, The Cult of the Amateur, Random House, p. 15, ISBN 9780385520812
- ^ "Social Media: the future of small business marketing," Constructaquote.com, http://www.constructaquote.com/home/business-guides/social-media.aspx
- ^ Golder, Scott; Huberman, Bernardo A. (2006), "Usage Patterns of Collaborative Tagging Systems", Journal of Information Science 32 (2): 198–208, doi:10.1177/0165551506062337, http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/idl/papers/tags/tags.pdf
- ^ Miley, M and Thomaselli, R, Advertising Age (2009)"Big Pharma Finally Taking Big Steps to Reach Patients With Digital Media
- ^ Pharma and Healthcare Social Media Wiki, Dose of Digital
 Further reading
- Benkler, Yochai (2006). The Wealth of Networks. New Haven: Yale University Press
- Johnson, Steven (2005). Everything Bad is Good for You: How Today’s Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter. New York: Riverhead Books
- Scoble, Robert, Israel, Shel (2006). Naked Conversations: How Blogs are changing the way businesses talk with customers. New York: Wiley & Sons
- Surowiecki, James (2005). The Wisdom of Crowds. New York: Anchor Books.
- Williams, Anthony D. (2006). Wikinomics, How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. New York: Portfolio. http://www.wikinomics.com/.
- Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael, (2010), Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, Issue 1, p. 59-68.
- Li, Charlene, Bernoff, Josh (2008). Groundswell, Winning in a world transformed by social technologies. Boston: Harvard Business
- Shirky, Clay (2008). Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. New York: Penguin. http://www.herecomeseverybody.org/.
- Gentle, Anne (2009). Conversation and Community: The Social Web for Documentation. Fort Collins: XML Press. http://xmlpress.net/conversation.html.
- Clark, Richard (2009). "The 5 F's of Social Media". http://richclark.wordpress.com/2009/11/02/5-fs-of-social-media/.