The Canadian North West Company merged with the British Hudson Bay Company


METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1800-1849 index




The New Hudson Bay Company eliminated the historic Great Lakes and St. Lawrence trade networks.
The Hudson Bay Company continued to attempt to enforce segregation between
Protestant and Catholic Metis through religion, Language and location.



(II)-John Beads, Metis, b-1795 Rupert's Land, employed HBC (1814-1838), married about 1821, Albany, Margaret Indian or Metis (1800-1856).

Francois Borbonna, Metis, b-1817, arrived 1821 Sault Ste Marie son of a British Indian, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descended from British Indians. 

Fort George, West Coast, birth Isabelle Boucher Metis died 1860, daughter Jean Baptiste Boucher, interpreter on assignment with the N.W.C. and Josephte Kanhopitsa; She married 1839 Joseph Barnabe. 

Swan River, birth Mary Brass, Metis daughter Peter Brass Sr. Metis, b-1794 Hudson Bay, and Susan Roy or Comtois, Metis.   

(I)-Henry Brown, b-1799, Orkney, employed HBC Lac Seul (Lake Sale), Albany (1821-1828) retired to Red River 1828'  Married 1829 (II)-Isabella Slater Metis b-1806 Lac Seul, daughter (I)-James Slater (1773/79-1856) and Mary Indian woman; their children are:
     (II)-John Brown Metis baptized 1829
     (II)-Thomas Brown Metis baptised 1829
     (II)-Isabella Brown Metis baptised 1830
     (II)-James Brown Metis baptized 1832
     (II)-Mary Brown Metis baptized 1835
     (II)-Harry Brown Metis baptized 1836
     (II)-Margaret Brown Metis baptized 1841
     (II)-Jean Brown Metis baptized 1843
     (II)-Peter Brown Metis b-1843 Red River married 1863 Annie Bird
        (III)-Henry Brown Metis b-1864
        (III)-Elizabeth Browb Metis b-1866
        (III)-John Rupert Brown Metis b-1868
     (II)-William Brown Metis baptized 1845, died 1846
     (II)-Alexander Brown Metis baptized 1846, died 1852
     (II)-Letita Brown Metis baptized 1848
     (II)-Catherine Brown Metis baptized 1851
     (II)-George Brown Metis baptized 1853

(I)-Henry Buxton, (1794-1870) employed HBC (1821-1825) retired Upper Red River, married (II)- Francois Thomas, Metis d-before 1843, daughter (I)- Thomas Thomas and Sarah Indian (1776-1846).
    (II)-Henry Buxton Metis bapt-1829

Alfred Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis b-1821, arrived Saulte Ste Marie 1831 son Hines and Angelique Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798, listed March 28, 1836 treaty. 

Charles Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1821, living 1836 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descendent of a Canadian tribe.

Jean Baptiste Charette, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1821 to 1846.

Indian Lake, Churchill, District: birth (II)-Elizabeth Charles, Metis, daughter (I)-John Charles, b-1784 and (II)-Jane Auld, Metis (1794-1841) 

Amable Constin, Ottawa Metis, b-1821 Mackinac, son Pierre Constin, deceased, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Osnaburgh, Moose District, birth (II)-Katharine Comloquoy, Metis, daughter (I)-Alexander Comloquoy aka Cumloquoy and Cumloquey, b-1793, and Osnaburgh, Indian woman; married March 1820, John Johnston

Sault Ste. Marie, birth, Francois Default Jr., Ojibwa Metis, son Francois Default, Ojibwa Metis,  b-1796, Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-John Forbister (Forbester, Foubister) an Orkney b-1790/1802 joined HBC (1821-1825) Moose Factory, married 1825 Red River (II)-Catherine Robertson Metis bapt 1825 daughter (I)-George Robertson (Robinson) Orkney, (1771-1855) and Indian woman; one son recorded?
    (II)-James Forbister bapt 1829, maybe he married 1853 (II)-Catherine Foulds Metis bapt 1834 and the following children are his, that seems more likely?
        (III)-John Alexander Forbister Metis bapt 1854 d-1859, likely b-1827
        (III)-Andrew Forbister Metis b-1854
        (III)-James Forbister Metis bapt 1855
        (III)-Mary Anne Forbister Metis bapt 1856, d-1857
        (III)-Andrew Forbister Metis bapt 1858
        (III)-Caroline Forbister Metis b-1858, bapt 1859 married 1878 Robert Wishart
        (III)-Catherine Forbister Metis b-1859
        (III)-Flora Forbister Metis b-1861, bapt 1862 
        (III)-John Forbister Metis b-1863
        (III)-Samual Forbister Metis b-1865
        (III)-Floria Forbister Metis b-1866

(I)-John Foulds (Folds, Foldes) (1798-1868) [brother Samuel (1803-1870); joined HBC (1821-1825) York Factory, Fort Gary, Red River (1822-1825) married 1825 (II)-Mary Fidler Metis b-1805/11 daughter (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-18220 and Mary Indian or Metis (1771-1826)
    (II)-Mary Foulds Metis bapt 1828
    (II)-John Foulds Metis bapt 1830, married 1855 Ann Adams daughter George Adams
    (II)-Nancy Foulds Metis bapt 1833, d-1851
    (II)-Elizabeth Foulds Metis bapt 1835
        William Herbert Metis an illegitimate son
        Miles Foulds? Metis an illegitimate son
    (II)-Harriet Foulds Metis bapt 1838
    (II)-Abraham Foulds Metis bapt 1841, married Elizaneth Harkness

(I)-Samuel Foulds (Folds, Foldes) (1803-1870) [brother John (1798-1868); joined HBC (1821-1830) York Factory, married 1828 York Factory Nancy (aka Ann or Anne) Calder Metis/Indian?, a washerwoman at York, bapt 1828, d-1896 
    (II)-Margaret Foulds Metis bapt 1828 York Factory, married 1850 John Smith
    (II)-unnamed Foulds Metis daughter bapt 1830
    (II)-Anne Foulds Metis bapt 1832, married 1851, Robert Flett
    (II)-Catherine Foulds Metis bapt 1834, married 1853, (II)-James Forbister bapt 1829 son (I)-John Forbister (1790-1802)
    (II)-Floria Foulds Metis bapt 1836, married 1854, Angus McKay
        Isabella James McKay Metis
        Jemima McKay Metis
        Donald McKay Metis
    (II)-Henry Foulds Metis bapt 1838, married 1906 Jesse Kirton
    (II)-Elizabeth Foulds Metis bapt 1844. married 1865, William Fidler
    (II)-Thomas Foulds Metis b & bapt 1846, married 1871 Charlotte Armstrong
    (II)-Sarah Foulds Metis bapt 1849, d-1939 married 1869 Fort Simpson, Julian Stewart Onion aka (I)-Julian Srewart Camsell (1838-1907)
    (II)-Alexander Foulds Metis bapt 1851, d-1855
    (II)-Caroline Foulds Metis bapt 1854
    (II)-Robert Foulds Metis bapt 1855, married Janedaughter Floria Jane b-1877
    (II)-William Foulds Metis bapt 1857, married 1869 Elizabeth Daniel
    (II)-David Foulds Metis bapt 1858, Matilda McLeod

John Gornow (Gornor), Ojibwa Metis b-1821 Sault Ste Marie son Louis Gornow (Gornor), Ojibwa Metis b-1790 and  Archangel Gornow (Gornor) aka Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798,  listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Mother is likely Say-shaw-ne-nie, see marriage 1815.

Maximilien Genthon arrived at Red River from Lanoraie, Quebec.  He married Marie Louise Jerome, daughter Martin Jerome and an Indian woman. They had a daughter Marguerite Genthon who married William Dease.

George Gesson, Ottawa Metis, b-1821, arrived 1835, Mackinac, son Angelique McGulpin, Ottawa Metis b-1786, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878) employed HBC (1813-1822) out of York Factory; married a half-breed woman before 1821 York Factory and 2nd marriage January 17, 1826, Image Plains, (II)-Margaret Swain, Metis, daughter (I)-James Swain, Metis b-1775 and Indian woman

(II)-Roderick Kennedy Metis (1821/22-1911) schooled Orkney, son (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) and Aggathas Isbister  aka Bear Metis/Indian, joined HBC (1845-1849) Moose Factory, married 1847 (II)-Mary McTavish Metis (1817-1887) daughter (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) and Charlotte Thomas Metis and Mary is widow (I)-George Ross (1808-1846)
    (II)-John George Ross Metis
    (II)-Thomas Keith Ross Metis

Charles Le Frenche Metis b-1821 Red River son Josephine, living Wisconsin 1871

Augustus Laroche, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1821 to 1846.

Pierre Larocque b-1786/87 employed HBC (1821-1824) in Upper Red River, retired 1824 Lower Red River.   Pierre Larocque b-1786 is the son of Francois Larocque, he married 
1st. Margarite Cree and 
2nd Josephte Descoteaux b-1853.  Two children are noted 
    Louis Larocque Metis married Mary Savoyard dit Berthelet Metis, likely daughter Toussaint Berthelet dit Savoyard b-1780 and Marguerite Saulteaux (Chippewa); 
    Francois Larocque Metis married Angelique Sayis

Mary Ann Lasaw, Ojibwa Metis, b-1821, arrived 1834 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as Whiskey says they are not relatives to these Indians.

Red River birth Augustin Levigne (Lavigne) Metis (1821-1841) joined HBC (1839-1841) Columbia District, died Fort Taku (Fort Durham, Columbia District)

Liset Le May, Metis, b-1796, arrived 1821 Sault Ste Marie wife John D. Le May, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descended from Indians of the North end of Lake Superior. 

Red River, birth (II)-William Logan, Metis died pre 1866, son (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) Sault Ste Marie and Mary Saulteaux Indian woman d-1838

Charlotte Lovay, Ojibwa Metis b-1816, settled 1821 Sault Ste Marie, married John Baptiste Lovay, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Francois Marion is employed HBC in Lower Red River.

John McBean (1778-1854) of the HBC is made chief factor of the Lake Huron district.

(III)-Charles McKay, Metis, b/d-1821 son (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877/87) and (II)-Harriet Ballenden Metis (1795/1800-1854)

(I)-Andrew McDermot (1783-1881) employed HBC (1812-1824) married 1821, Mary an Indian Girl, baptized May 6, 1832

Charles McKenzie aka MacKenzie (1778-1855) employed NWC (1802-1821) and HBC (1821-1852), retired 1854 Red River.

(II)-William McGillivray, Metis (1764-1825) was a bigamist, having two wives, Susan who gave him (III)-Joseph McGillivray, Metis, (III)-Simon McGillivray, Metis and (III)-Elizabeth McGillivray, Metis, and second wife Magdeline who gave him two daughters.  The Hudson Bay Company looked down on Metis wives and along with the clergy gave them the status of concubines or prostitutes thereby encouraging them to take a second white wife.  

Amiable Morris, Ojibwa Metis, b-1821 Sault Ste Marie son Nicolas Morris, Pawnee Metis, b-1802 Sault Ste Marie and Josette Morris, Ojibwa Metis b-1803 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

John Nichols, Ojibwa Metis, b-1821, arrived 1835, Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836.  Rejected as father is of Green Bay.

Daniel Rodd, Ojibwa Metis, b-1821, arrived 1830 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother a Saginaw Indian.

Jean Baptiste Roi was employed in 1818 by the American Fur Company in the department of Fond du Lac, Lake Superior, at a salary of $1200. 

Harriet Romaine, Ojibwa Metis, b-1821, arrived 1827 Mackinac, listed, March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as mother a British Indian

Joseph Rondo (Rondeau), born 1797 Montreal,  joined the Hudson Bay Company, wintered at the Fraser River, Great Slave Lake and Fort Edmonton and settled at Red River where he married Josephine Boileau, a Kutenai Metis.

Mary Shaw, Ojibwa Metis b-1806, arrived 1821 Sault Ste Marie, related to one of the sub-chiefs and wife of Thomas Shaw b-1803 Sault Ste Marie a near relative of the chief Ste. Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Osnaburgh House, Albany, birth (II)-John Robertson Stewart, Metis, died April 11, 1889, son (I)-Andrew Stewart (1789-1822) Scotland, employed HBC (1811-1822) and (II)-Frances (Fanny) Thomas, Metis, daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822); married January 2, 1851, Glasgow, Scotland, Sarah White (1820-1895).
                    CHILDREN likely all born Scotland
        (III)-Helen Frances Stewart, Metis (1857-1879
        (III)-Sarah Maria Stewart, Metis (1860-1898), married William Kelway
        (III)-Mary Stewart, Metis, married David Todd
        (III)-Louisa Robertson Stewart, Metis (1866-1876) 

(I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate son George Simpson joined HBC (1821-1860) and was a bigamist with little regard for wives and his offspring.  He regarded them as little more than sexual partners, and assigned them new mates when he tired of them.  He was little red-head Scott and was physically unimpressive.  H was ruthless and insensitive in business.  He married a brood of “country wifes”, :
Various other unnamed women's and their children
    (II)-Marie Louisa Simpson  b-1815 Scotland married Donald McTavish
    (II)-Isabella Simpson  b-1817 Scotland  married James Cook Gordon
    (II)-Maria Simpson Metis b-1822 
    (II)-James Keith Simpson Metis b-1823

(II)-Maria Betsey Miles d-1838 daughter (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles (1795-1870) and Elizabeth Betsay Sinclair Metis (1805-1822); and had one child, 
Mary Keith had one child 
Ann Foster had one child in Montreal

Marie Margaret Taylor Metis who had two children, he sent his Metis family to John Stuart, whose own country wife was Margaret’s sister
    (II)-George Stewart Simpson Metis b-1827
    (II)-John Mckenzie Stewart Metis b-1829

Margaret Heddes McKenzie 

(III)-Andrew (Andre) Dominique Pambrun Metis (1821-1895) born Cumberland House, son (II)-Pierre Chrysologue Pambrun (1792-1841) and Catherine (Kitty) Horteuse Numperville Meris b-1805. Sent to Red River for education.  Joined HBC (1851-1855) Columbia/Oregon. He retired 1855.  Married 1843 Maria (Mary) Cook (1824-1912) they had 13 children
    (IV)-Catherine Pambrun Metis b-1855
    (IV)-Jeremiah Pambrun Metis b-1860
    (IV)-James Pambrun Metis 
    (IV)-Mary Amngelique Pambrun Metis b-1867
     (IV)-Julis Washington Pambrun Metis b-1869

Married 1830 Francois Ramsey (1812-1853) daughter of Geddes Mackenzie Simpson, She returned to London 1834, George remained in Montreal but she returned 1845
    (II)-George Geddes Simpson (1831-1832)
    (II)-Francois Webster Fanny Simpson b-1833
    (II)-Augusta D'Este Gussy Simpson b-1841
    (II)-Margaret Mackenzie (Maggie) b-1843
    (II)-John Henry Pelly Simpson b-1850

(I)-Bakie Sinclair b-1800, joined HBC (1821-1844) married about 1836 Oxford House Elizabeth b-1812 an Indian or Metis who died 1857 Red River
    (II)-Betsy Sinclair Metis b-1837 Oxford House
    (II)-George Sinclair Metis b-1851
    (II)-Thomas Sinclair Metis b-1853
    (II)-Nancy Sinclair Metis b-1855

Mary Sulyer, Ojibwa Metis, b-1821 Mackinac, a servant to Jas. Stevens, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Sikas Tillamook aka Marie Catherine, (1821-1871) daughter Tillamook (Salishan) father and Clatsop mother; married Alexandre Latte b-1802 Scotland and drowned 1849.  Sikas spent her life near the mouth of the Columbia River.

Cumberland House, birth Andre Pambrun, Metis son Pierre Cyrysologue Pambrun (1792-1841) and  Catherine (Kitty) Umfreville, Metis 

(I)- John Work (1792-1861) joined HBC this year and worked until his death in 1861.  His first wife was a Red River woman with whom he had two daughters.  In 1826 he married Josette Legace and had Henry, Jane, Mary, Sarah, Cecelia, Suzaette, John, and David; this marriage was formalized 6 November 1849.

Red River Valley contained 500 Metis relocated from Pembina to Red River:  133 French speaking at Red River, likely Metis, with a few French; 65 De Meurons mercenaries, mainly Swiss and German, having arrived this year; and 221 Scots, Irish and English.  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, recommended to the Selkirk Estate that recruitment of European immigrants virtually cease and the Red River be peopled from the West itself, not from abroad.  

The Eskimo or Husky dogs were summered in a dog kennel at Red River. Garry reports that 100 dogs were kept by a man who received two dollars per day for each dog. They were located at a excellent fishing place in order to feed the dogs. In winter the dogs were used by the Metis on dog sleds like the Inuit (Eskimo). It is noteworthy that the Metis stopped every five miles for a pipe (smoke) to rest the dogs, and they measured distance by the number of pipes.

The Presbyterian Minister promised by Thomas Douglas had still not appeared, and applications to Governor Alexander MacDonnell, a Roman Catholic or more properly, the Scotch thought, a nothing Aryan, was to no avail.

The dreaded Irish Orange Order began arriving in Canada, being brought in by Protestant Irish.  The order vowed to make Canada Protestant, British and Conservative.  The Orange men would have a profound negative impact on the Metis and Canadian Culture.  The British Hudson Bay Company Post at Fort Waterloo was distributing its quota of three hundred and sixty nine gallons of gin per trading season.  Exasperated by the continuing violence between the British Company and the Canadian Company, the British Government urged a compromise solution. But Thomas Douglas of Selkirk would not negotiate with the Canadians.  Thomas Douglas was now becoming a liability to the British Hudson Bay Company.  Thomas Douglas, a harassed and broken man, died April of this year, and few mourned his passing.  Many Scottish descendants, however, were thankful for his tenacity in carving a place for their clans.  Chief Peguis of the Red River Ojibwa aided the people of Red River.  In times of famine, he provided food.  When asked for land, he granted it.  During the Seven Oaks conflict, he harbored a Scottish mother and her children.  The English reported the  Cree still considered the Ojibwa as advancing on their lands.  An evil thought planted by the English, but these rumors were unable to break the alliance and family ties with the Red River Metis.

The annual meeting at Fort William made the usual arrangements between the Nor'wester and Montreal agents but reached no decision on the future of the Company.  The current agreement was to expire in 1822, and merger with the British Hudson Bay Company was still a possibility as the ongoing war was very destructive to both sides.

Grand Portage route A party of Hudson Bay Company voyagers portaging a load of trade goods at a supply post along the route of the Grande Portage and the North West fur country.



Meanwhile, two thousand Scots settled in the Rideau district, south of present day Ottawa. They were unemployed weavers, uprooted by the land enclosure system in Scotland.  Three thousand Scots also settled in the Peterborough area.

John Holliday of the American Fur Company was trading six thousand annually in Lake Superior.  Sault Ste Marie, on the American side, consisted of fifteen to twenty buildings, occupied by five or six French and English families.  (I)-John Johnson  (1762?-1828 or 1742-1830?), an Irishman, was in charge, and he married Susan or Angelice Oshawousgodaywaygua (Oshahgushkadawaquay), Woman of the Great Meadowthe, died 1843 daughter of Chippewa (Ojibwa) Chief Waubjeeg (white Fisher).  Henry R. Schoolcraft was visiting there and would later (1823) marry Johnson's daughter, Jane Obahbahmwawagezhegoquay Johnson, Metis.  

There are about 200 Chippewa (Ojibwa) settled about the establishment.  The population of Michigan is 9,048, having doubled in the past decade.  Twenty eight Chief Traders and Fifty three Officers; thirty two of which would be former North West Company men.

Some of these new Hudson Bay Company men were:  Donald MacKenzie and (I)-Alexander Christie (1783-1872), who would both become Governor of Assiniboine; John Roland, Chief Factor at Fort Edmonton; Colin Robertson; Dr. John McLoughlin (1784-1857), father of Oregon; John Stuart of the Fraser exploration group; James Leith; and William Connolly (1786/87-1849).  William Williams became Governor of the Southern Department and (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, Governor of the Northern District.  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, dominated the fir trade for the next 40 years.  Some called him the little emperor because of his small size (5' 6").

(I)-Samel Black (1780-1841), formally of the XY Company, now of the North West Company, is one of the few rejected by the new H.B.C.  While he was with the NWC he was ruthless opposition to HBC intrusions in the Athabasca.  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, considered him "the strangest man" he ever knew.  Later in 1823 he was admitted as a clerk and in 1824 became a chief trader.  He was noted to be "a man of notorious bad character" and was eventually killed by the natives in 1841..  

Dr Bigsby, physician and secretary to the British Commission, with his party of Metis, began surveying the boundary between Frand Portage to the Lake of the Woods. Some of those involved in the survey are Long, Garry, McKenny, Kane, Kennicott and Franklin.

Fort Alexandria in the interior of British Columbia is built by the North West Company and grew wheat this year.

There are surplus forts and personnel.  The North West Company had 97 forts, and the Hudson Bay Company had 76 forts.  This resulted in twice as many clerks as needed.  Senior officers retired under generous terms.  Unsatisfactory or newly hired personnel were discharged.  A strategic shift of trade routes would take place from Montreal to the Hudson Bay, from canoe to York boat.  The merger eliminated the historic Great Lakes and St. Lawrence trade networks.  The French, pork eating Voyager became redundant; being replaced by the English York men to serve the North West Territories.  The displaced peoples became independent traders at Red River and Sault Ste Marie. The Hudson Bay established itself at Sault Ste Marie in an attempt to displace the free traders, but considered their Michipicoten Post as more strategic. Others joined the American Fur Company or faded into the Canadian or American main stream.  These Coureurs des Bois, being attached to their native women, rarely returned to native Quebec but, rather, migrated to the Red River, Dakota territories, Red Lake, and the shores of Lake Superior to become hunters, trappers, and free traders.  A small number sustained themselves on fishing, the production of maple sugar and on farming. The natural flow of Canadians to the Territories now became an English flow through the Hudson Bay.  The Hudson Bay Company gave preference to British subjects to ensure that the western expansion was English.  At this time practically all officers and many lower ranked employees had women according to the custom of the country.  Church sanctioned or recorded marriages were few.  The company had a practice of not bringing churchmen into the fur trade country until Thomas Douglas of Selkirk opened the door.  Some English veterans of the Hudson Bay Company with their Metis families settled on the left bank of the Red River.  These include:  William H. Cook, Thomas Thomas, James Bird, Alexander Ross, (I)-John Pritchard (1777-1855), Donald Gunn, Thomas Bunn and others.  The English had a policy to limit the Metis to higher positions in the fur business.  A few Metis who attained the higher accounting positions were:  (III)-John McNab Metis (b-1806) son (II)-Thomas McNab Metis (b-1781) North West, (II)-Charles Thomas Metis b-1793, (II)-Charles Bird b-1795, son (I)-James Curtis Bird, James Hodgson b-1785, son John Hodgson, and (II)-Thomas Fidler Metis (1795-1875) son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822), who are sons of superior officers and mostly Anglo Saxon Half-breed rather than French Metis.

(I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) a Scot, wrote to Andrew Colvile concerning (I)-John Pritchard (1777-1855) and his Buffalo Wool Company (1820) of Red River which failed, as he hated incompetence. A Tallow Company and another company which grew flax and hemp, also failed. The Hayfield Experimental Farm also collapsed. (I)-John Pritchard (1777-1855) was attempting different ventures, as the Selkirk settlers were poor farmers, mostly accustomed to raising sheep. It is worth keeping in mind that every gentlemen in the service was unfriendly to the Selkirk Colony and they were not provided with proper tools, nor tools to make tools. It wasn't until 1824 that the settlers managed to acquire primitive implements such as ploughs and sickles.

Louis Gornoe (1790-1863) is alleged by his descendants to be an officer at Sault Ste Marie of the North West Company.  It would appear that he is working out of Fort La Pointe (Madeleine Island, Lake Superior), which is under the control of Sault Ste Marie.  Fort La Pointe is listed as a North West Company Fort.  His forced retirement from the North West Company resulted in his moving his family to Sault Ste Marie on the American side.  More accurately, it is at Bay Mills which is about ten miles south west of Sault Ste Marie on the Saint Mary River.  Maps of this period indicate few choices for unemployed traders with families to feed.  Sault Ste Marie is the North West Company establishment on the north shore of Lake Saint George that is east of the Saint Mary river.  Excluding the American Sault Ste Marie and Bay Mills, only two other locations, namely Fort Michilimackinac and a colony called 'New Settlement' not far from present Bay City, offer options. 

Madeline Island Graveyard There were a number of Chippewa camps and a number of Metis settled at La Pointe, Madeline Island, Red Lake and Pembina.   The advantage of Bay Mills over other locations was the availability of fish.  (7)-Francis S. Gurnoe is born 1821 Bay Mills, Michigan son (6)-Louis Gurnoe born 1790 and Se-Ranze (Say Shaw Ne Nie) born 1800.

(I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) a Scot at Fort Wedderburn, Mackenzie River, complained of ink freezing in his pen when within four feet of a large fire, while trying to write his report; so cold was this winter.  He also wrote that the Company Gentlemen immediately form a relationship with the wives or daughters to secure alliances in trade.  This is a complete reversal of previous H.B.C. policy.  After the demise of the Canadian North West Company, there are no more summer voyages from Montreal.  The only agreements made are for three year contracts.  These longer absences resulted in a greater likelihood of definitive emigration into the Metis Nation.  Red River, the Hudson Bay Company believed,  still had potentialities as a place of retirement, a source of food supply for the fur trade but, more important, a barrier against American encroachment.

The Hudson Bay Company continued to attempt to enforce segregation between Protestant and Catholic Metis, through religion, language and location.  A new class of free trading Metis at Red River was emerging, who could not align with the Hudson Bay Company thinking.

The priests used the excuse of the threatening Sioux to persuade five hundred Metis to relocate from Pembina to St. Boniface where other French Metis from St. Lawrence River settled, using the excuse to better protect themselves and Red River.  After Thomas Douglas of Selkirk's death, Edward Ellice of the North West Company assumed a leadership role in the Red River Metis Nation.

We should keep in mind that the south west trade from the Great Lakes didn't stop over night, and most people in this region paid little, if any, attention to boundaries, especially in Chippewa Territories- which was most of the west. Truman Abraham Warren and Lyman Marcus Warren both joined the American Fur Company and married Cadotte's daughters.

The reorganized Hudson Bay Company consisted of 53 officers or- as they liked to call themselves- commissioned gentlemen. There were twenty five Chief Factors and 28 Chief Traders.  Two thirds of this number represented the old North West Company men.  Nicholas Garry, committee member of the new Hudson Bay Company, noted:

Canoe on Ottawa River This painting by Mrs. Hopkin's (1858-1870) of Lachine Quebec represents the glory of the past. It is a Canot de Maitre (Montreal Canoe), 35-40 feet long, with a 16 man crew of Voyagers and was used to run the Ottawa River and on the Great Lakes. The takeover of trade by the British Hudson Bay Company diverted the trade route to the Hudson Bay, effectively destroying the Canadian supply lines. Canadian French Voyagers were no longer required. It is not clear if they realized that they were dividing a natural nation and alienating the French.

The Hudson Bay Company had recruited 165 Swiss for the Red River Colony.  They entered into contract with the H.B.C. with an understanding that they were going to the Red River of the South.  They arrived just before winter with none of the promised food or tools, and discovered the best land along the river was already occupied.  Some immediately headed south, with most abandoning Red River by 1826 for the south.  They said the Hudson Bay Company had failed to live up to their contract.  Many went to Fort St. Anthony, a.k.a. Fort Snelling, and St. Peters, a.k.a. Mendota, at the junction of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers.  Others went to Venay, Indiana.

The Superintendent of Farming, from the Selkirk's ill-fated colony at Pembina, arrived at Fort St. Anthony (Fort Snelling), on their way to Prairie du Chien, for supplies.

The American Fur Company drove a herd of cattle into Fort St. Anthony (Fort Snelling), and brought five Swiss families.  These are likely the Swiss from the Red River of the north.  The Metis and Swiss would later be driven from Fort St. Anthony to relocate to Saint Paul, a few miles down the Mississippi River. 

Kentucky abolished the English debtor prison.

The Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821) was resolved.  The Mexican Territory included Texas, Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California as well as Mexico proper.  Kansas was not included in the Louisiana purchase and is assumed to be part of the Mexican Territory?   The dust would hardly settle before the Americans would begin to war on Mexican rights.  Mexico was weakened by the war with Spain and the Americans seized on the opportunity.  

Mexico having finally achieved independence from Spain but at a severe economic burden.  Fearing the USA expansionist objectives Mexico entered into the Treaty of Limits of 1828 with the USA to protect its territory especially the Texas Territory.  1821 Revolution against the Spanish government established the independent Republic of Mexico, including Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and  California.

January 23:  Cahokia, marriage, (V)-Joseph Lepage, Metis son (IV)-Joseph Lepage, Metis, and Therese Gaudin: married Marie Louise St. Germain

January 29:  Upper Red River. marriage, (II)-Thomas Favel (Favell) (1780/81-1848), Metis likely son (I)-John Favell Jr. d-1784, employed HBC (1754-1784) and Tittmeg or Titameg, Indian woman:; married Sally or Sarah Trout a Cree woman

January 29: Upper Red River,  (III)-John Favel, Metis b-1797/1800, (III)-Thomas Favel, Metis, (III)-Richard Favel, Metis, (III)-Sally Favel, Metis, (III)-Samuel Favel, Metis, (III)-Humphrey Favel, Metis are baptised along with their parents (II)-Thomas Favel (Favell) (1780/81-1848), Metis likely son (I)-John Favell Jr. d-1784, employed HBC (1754-1784) and Indian woman:; and Sally a Cree woman

February 24:  Mexico declared its independence from Spain and took over control of Spanish California.

March 11:  Rupert's House, birth, George O'Conner,  son Richard Stevens,b-1793, married 1820, likely Rupert's House, Mary O'Conner, b-1792; married Sarah Stevens.

May 27 Red River birth (II)-Jane Wishart, died May 28, 1823 Red River, Metis, daughter (I)-Thomas Wishart b-1797 Scotland and Barbara Spence Metis.

June 11:   Sault Ste Marie, marriage (I)-John Palmer Bourke born January 1791 Sligo, Lightford, County Mayo, Ireland, died 1851 St. James, Red River; married Nancy Campbell, Metis born about 1800, Sault Ste Marie, died July 8, 1887 St. James, Winnipeg, Manitoba, daughter John A. Campbell born 1775 and Wahpeton.  Nancy is sister to Mrs Hercules Dousman, Colin, Duncan and Scott Campbell.

July 28:  John Franklin, (1786-1847) an Englishman led a party to map the Northern coast of Canada.  Of the 20 man party, 9 staved and froze to death.  They ate lichen scraped off rocks and finally resorted to eating strips of leather from their boots! Even with such delicacies, half the crew died.  One man was executed for alleged cannibalism.

August 12:  Norway House, marriage (I)-Thomas Isbister (1793-1836) married 1821 (II)-Mary Kennedy, Cree Metis b-1807, baptized August 12, 1821, Norway house, daughter (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) and Mary Aggathas Isbister (1782-1863)

August 12:   Francois Cadot born yesterday baptized August 13 son Augustin Cadot and L'Amainbile Otchipwas as recorded Michilimackinac.  This Augustin Cadot is probably a son or brother of Joseph Cadot interpreter Fort St. Joseph about 1808, lieutenant during 1812-15 war.  Joseph Cadot settled on Drummond Island.  August Joseph Gueret witnessed a baptism Mackinac in August.

August 12: Norway House, baptism (II)-Helen McDermot, Metis daughter (I)-Andrew McDermot (1783-1881) and Mary an Indian Girl.

August 12: Norway House, baptism (II)-Biddy McDermot, Metis son (I)-Andrew McDermot (1783-1881) and Mary an Indian Girl.

August 12: Norway House, baptism (II)-Mary McDermot, Metis daughter (I)-Andrew McDermot (1783-1881) and Mary an Indian Girl; married April 21, 1836 Thomas Bird (possibly another Mary?; or married 2nd, June 1, 1846, Richard Lane.

August 21:   Mackinac baptism Francois Cadot son Augustin Cadot and L'Amainbile an Otchipwas woman (probable son or brother Joseph Cadot).

August 29:  Chicago, in the State of Illinois, Treaty with the Ottawa, Chippewa and Pottawatamie Nations.

Land grants:

John Burnet, Metis, 2 sections of land.
James Burnt, Abraham Burnet, Rebecca Burnet and Nancy Burnet, Metis children of Kawkeeme, sister of Topnibe, of the Potawatamie Nation, a section of land each on the north bank of the river St. Joseph, about two miles from the mouth.
John B. La Lime, Metis, son of Nokenoqua, 1/2 section above the previous grant.
Jean Baptiste Chandonai, Metis, son of Chippewaqua, one section of land adjoing the tract granted to John B. La Lime.
Joseph Daze, Metis, son Chippewaqua, a section of land above and adjoing the tract granted to Jean Baptiste Chadonai, Metis
Monguago 1/2 section at Mishshewakokink
Pierre Moran or Peeresh, Metis, a Potawatamie Chief, a section of land and to his children two sections of land at the mouth of the Elkland River.
Pierre Le Clerc, Metis, son Moiqua a section of land on the Elkheart River above and adjoing the Moran grant above.
The section of land granted by Treaty of St. Mary's in 1818 to Peeresh or Perig shall be granted to Jean Baptiste Cicot, Metis, son of Pesayquot, sister of said Peerish.
Osheakkebe or Benac, Metis 1/2 section land north side Elkheart River where the road from Chicago to Fort Wayne first crosses the said river.
Menawche a Potawatamine woman 1/2 section on the east bank of the St. Joseph River where the road from Chicago to Fort Wayne first crosses the said river.
Theresa Chandler or Toeakqui, Metis a Potawatamine woman and her daughter Betsey Fisher, Metis, a section of land on the south side of the Grand River, opposite the Spruce Swamp.
Charles Beaubien, Metis, and Medart Beaubien, Metis, sons Mannabenaqua, each 1/3 section near the Village Kewigoshkeem on the Washtenaw River.
Antoine Roland, Metis, son of Igatpatawatamiequa 1/2 section adjoing and below grant to Pierre Moran, Metis.
William Knaggs or Waseskukson, Metis son Chesqua 1/2 section adjoining and below the grant to Antoine Roland, Metis.
Madeline Bertrand, Metis, wife Joseph Bertrand, a Potawatamie woman, section land at the Parc and Vaches, on the north side of the St. Joseph River.
Joseph Bertrand, junior, Benjamin Bertrand, Laurent Bertrand, Theresa Bertrand and Amable Bertrand, Metis children of Madeline Bertrand, each 1/2 section land at portage of the Kankakee River.
John Riley, Metis, son Menawcumegoquoi a section of land at the mouth of the river Au Foin on the Grand River and extending up the said river.
Peter Riley, Metis, son Menawcumegoquoi a section of land at the mouth of the river Au Foin on the Grand River and extending down the said river.
Jean Baptiste Le Clerc, Metis, son Moiqua 1/2 section land above and adjoining  the grant to Pierre Le Clerc.
Joseph La Framboise, Metis, son Shawwenoqua section land on the south side of river St. Joseph and adjoining on the upper side of the land cede to the United States.

October: Lac La Pluie, birth (II)-Margaret McKenzie, Metis, died November 1834 daughter (I)-Roderick McKenzie Jr. (1790-1830), and (II)-Sally Sutherland, Metis (1777-1827) daughter of (I)-James Sutherland (1751-1797) and Indian Woman; 

October 10: Moose Factory, birth (II)-Joseph Swanson, Metis daughter (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown, Metis d-before 1835. 

October 21: Sioux City, Missouri marriage (VI)-Amable Turpin Metis son (IV)-Joseph Turpin Metis b-1770 and Ursule Dagoust et Daut; married Marie Chalifour a Sioux, daughter Joseph
Chalifour and Marie Rose Poujol from Sioux City, Missouri
    (VII)-Marie Rose Turpin nee dans le Wisconsin Metis married 1888 Carondel, Louis Robert
    (VII)-Marie Turpin Metis b-1827 St Louis Missouri

November 10; Red River baptism/birth (III)-Jane Whitford, Metis, daughter (II)-James Whitford, Jr. Metis and Mary Spence; married Samuel Spence 

November 17:  Catherine Govreau and Francois Baudoin baptized at Mackinac a Theotis born 1805 and Pierre born 1818. 



The Americans issued the Trade and Intercourse Act of 1822. Foreign traders (Canadians) were excluded from dealing with Indian tribes on American territory.

Joseph Bailly, Ottawa/Ojibwa Metis, b-1822 Grand River, son Francis Bailly Ottawa Metis, b-1805 and Ojibwa squaw (iskwao)  whom the chief Ka-she-way says is his cousin, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

Albany, birth (III)-Charles Beads, Metis (1822-1844) son (II)-John Beads, Metis, b-1795 Rupert's Land, employed HBC (1814-1856), married about 1821, Albany, Margaret Indian or Metis (1800-1856).

(II)-Arthur Bird, Metis born 1811 Edmonton House or born 1822 Red River son (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Mary Kelly Swampy Cree Indian or Elizabeth Oo-menahomiski; traveled to Oregon Territory with step brother/brother (1854)

Charles Boureseau, Ottawa Metis, b-1822, Mackinac, son Louis Boureseau but does not live with him, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Vital Boureseau, Ottawa Metis, b-1822 Mackinac, son Louis Boureseau Sr. but not living with him, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

James Bridger (1804-1881) son of William Bridger and Chloe of Virginia in 1822 joined William H. Ashley to trade the Missiuri River.

Nersis Brisbois, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived 1822 Sault Ste Marie, son Joseph Brisbois and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Therese Broadwine, Ojibwa Metis, b-1822 Sault Ste Marie daughter of Broadwine who died and Lisette Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

William Campbell, Ojibwa Metis, born 1822 Mackinac son John Campbell, Ojibwa Metis and White Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Charlotte Cantwa, Ojibwa Metis, b-1822 daughter Alphonse Cantwa, Pawnee Metis, b-1786 Saulte Ste Marie and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty. 

Angelique Carow, Ottawa/Ojibwa Metis, b-1822, arrived 1831, St. Ignace, daughter Joseph Carow, Ojibwa Metis, and Ottawa Metis Woman, b-1782 St. Ignace, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  It is noteworthy that woman's tribal origin is listed first.

Elizabeth Chapman, Ojibwa Metis, b-1822, arrived 1826 Mackinac, daughter Bela Chapman Sr. and Mary Chapman Ojibwa Metis b-1806, listed March 28, 1836, treaty.  

Albany, Moose District, birth (II)-Mary Comloquoy, Metis, daughter (I)-Alexander Comloquoy aka Cumloquoy and Cumloquey, b-1793, and Osnaburgh, Indian woman

Albany, marriage (I)-Thomas Corcoran (1794-1865) employed HBC (1818-1855) married (II)-Charlotte Sutherland, Metis, d-1854 Albany, daughter of (I)-John Sutherland, employed HBC (1778-1812) and Indian widow of (I)-Donald McPherson of Scotland, d-1819 employed HBC (1811-1819) and they had one son (II)-John McPherson, Metis, b-1817 employed HBC (1834-1839).  Children (II)-Richard Edwards Corcoran, Metis, (II)-Jane Isabella Corcoran, Metis, (II)-Margaret Corcoran, Metis, Young boy died 1840, (II)-Mary Corcoran, Metis, b-1821, Moose daughter of (I)-John Corcoran d-1827, employed HBC (1818-1826) and Indian woman.  (I)-John is brother of (II)-Thomas.  (II)-Mary Corcoran married 1855, Albany, Thomas Wiegand.   (I)-John left one child (II)-Mary Corcoran, Metis, in Micawbanish, New Brunswick and another child at Sault Ste. Marie in 1827.

Sault Ste. Marie, birth, Mary Anne Default, Ojibwa Metis,  daughter Francis Default. Ojibwa Metis, b-1796, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Josette Dauphiny, Ojibwa Metis, b-1800, arrived 1822 Mackinac, wife Francois Dauphiny, and sister Angelique Belonger b-1816, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as from Leech Lake Indians.

(II)-George Fidler, Metis b-1800 Chesterfield House d-1846 son (I)-Peter Fidler, (1769-1822) and Mary Swamply Cree (1771-1826); married Nancy Black Metis b-1810 N.W.T. daughter John Black and Marguarite Sauvahesse

Albany District, marriage (I)-Nicol Finlayson (1794-1877) to a native woman

Glorianna Folsome, Ojibwa Metis, b-1822, arrived 1828 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected mother a La Point Indian.

(I)-Thomas Fraser aka Frazer (1777-1849) employed NWC (1801-1804) Jack Creek and Hays House (likely NE Ontario), employed HBC (1821-1843) in the north, married likely 1840's (II)-Flora McTavish, Metis baptized 1822, daughter (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) and *(II)-Charlotte Thomas, b-1788 daughter (I)-John Thomas and Margaret Indian d-1813; *Daughter (II)-Nancy McKenzie Metia daughter (I)-Roderick MacKenzie (1772-1859) (II)-Flora after 1849 married James Stewart Watt, b-1827
        (II)-George Simpson Fraser, Metis
        (II)-Frances Fraser, Metis

(II)-Joseph Gladman, Metis (1796-1875), employed HBC (1814-1867) son (I)-George Gladman Sr. (1765-1821) and (II)-Mary Moore (Moar) Metis, (1774-1858): married 1822 New Brunswick House, Moose District, (II)-Margaret Auld, Metis (1800-1857) daughter (I)-William Auld (1770-1830).  Some suggest he had a second wife Mary Moore (Moar) b-1802 daughter (I)-George Moore and Mary Truthwaite b-1810, bapt 1830 * and had 10 kids, I find this highly unlikely.  Joseph retired 1868, died 1875 leaving only 7 years for 10 kids?  He had last kid with Margaret 1827 to 1830 which makes Mary age 28, then to have 10 kids, possible but not likely.  Likely one of the other Gladman boy's wife? * she married George Moore Metis b-1774/76

(I)-James Grieve Sr. (1797-1875) Orkney, employed Northern District (1816-1821) and Columbia district (1824-1825) and finally assigned Island Lake District (Manitoba) (1825-1876) married about 1827, most likely an Indian 

York Factory, baptism,  (II)-William Gunn, Metis (1822-1842) son (I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878) employed HBC (1813-1822) out of York Factory; married a half-breed woman before 1821 York Factory and 2nd marriage January 17, 1826, Image Plains, (III)-Margaret Swain, Metis, daughter (II)-James Swain, Metis (1799-1887)

(II)-William Lucas Hardisty (1822/24-1881) Metis son (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) employed HBC (1817-1861) and (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1876); joined HBC (1842-1878) MacKenzie River married 1856/57 Mary Anne Allen (1834?-1930)  Mary epouse 1883 Edwin Stewart Thomas (1850-1932)
    (III)-Isabella Clarke Hardisty Metis b-1864
    (III)-Mary Louisa Hardisty  Metis
    (III)-Richard Robert Hardisty Metis (1862-1885)
    (III)-Frank Allen Hardisty Metis b-1866
    (III)-Thomas Alexander Hardisty Metis
    (III)-David Alexander Hardisty Metis
    (III)-William Lucas Hardisty Metis

James R. A. Irvine (Irwin & Irwine) Metis b-1822 (1817) joined HBC (1841-1854) McKenzie River and Red River, retired 1855 Red River but worked as a freeman until 1882.  Married 1848 Matilda Tait (Tate) Metis (1828-1861) daughter William Bear and Mary.  HBC records him as Native but 1870 census and application for land script 1875 lists him as European Protestant & White, English speaking.  James is a possible son John Irvine Metis Jr.  b-1785 NWT son John Irvine Sr. married Louise Lagarde Metis b-1781 U.S.A.
    Mary Irwin Metis married 1849 Red River Richards
    James Irwin Metis b-1850
    Grace Irwin b-1852/53 married Smith
    Christiana Irwin b-1852 married Hallowell
    Philip Irwin b-1856
    Mathilda Irwin Metis b-1757/58 married Farrell
    Maria Irwin Metis b-1859/60

Francois Larocque Metis b-1822/24/25 Red River joined HBC (1841-1853) MacKenzie River; (1856-1864) Swan River but spent 11 years in Red River during this period.  Married Angelique Sayis (Sayer) b-1821 Red River daughter Louis Sayis (Sayer) and Margaret Cree, wife and son in MacKenzie River 1846/48 and took his family to Swan River 1855
    Pierre Larocque Metis 
    Marguarte Larocque Metis b-1847, Norway House, married Louison Cardinal b-1840

Eastman, birth (II)-William Lucas Hardesty, Metis (1822-1881) son (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) employed HBC (1817-1861) and (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1876); married 1857 Mary Ann Allen

William Linkland Metis (1822-1864) born Rupert's Land joined HBC (1840-1864) Moose Factory and Albany

Cumberland House, birth (II)-Alexander Isbister, Metis baptized August 25, 1828 son (I)-Thomas Isbister (1793-1836) and (II)-Mary Kennedy, Metis b-1807, daughter (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) and Mary Aggathas Isbister, Metis Cree (1782-1863. 

Jean Baptiste Jolibois born 1795 LaPrairie, likely Metis employed HBC (1822-1851) assigned (1822-1824) Athabasca

Louisa Johnson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1822 Sault Ste. Marie, daughter George Johnson listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Edward Lasley, Ojibwa Metis, b-1822, Mackinac son Samuel Lasley Jr. and his squaw (iskwao) wife, who is sister to Shaw-en-e-ge-sick, chief of the Bay de Noque Band, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

Red River, birth (II)-John Logan, Metis died pre-1866son (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) Sault Ste Marie and Mary Saulteaux Indian woman d-1838

Pierre Lozon, Ottawa Metis, b-1822 Mackinac, son Joseph Lozon, Ottawa Metis, and Nancy Ottawa Metis, b-1806, Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Abraham Hudon (1822-1844) Metis son  Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838)  and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Angelica Lacombe.  

(II)-Alexander Kennedy Isbister, Metis, born Cumberland House (Saskatchewan) died May 28, 1883 London, grand son of (I)-Joseph Isbister a bigamist and an Indian Woman.  He willed a personal fortune and 5,000 books to the University of Manitoba.

James Kipp (1788-1865+) of Montreal,  working for the Columbia Fur Company, built a trading post amongst the Mandans.

Angelick La Branche, Ojibwa Metis, b-1822 Sault Ste Marie daughter Francois La Branche and sister of Lisette Broadwine Ojibwa, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Abraham Leduce born 1822 Canada married Sally Ann b-1831 Canada, living Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan 1850 census.

John McDonald is stationed at Brandon (Manitoba)for the 1822/23 season, and reports ten lodges of Ojibwa are in his district.

York Factory, baptism (II)-Flora McKenzie, Metis daughter (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) employed HBC (1821-1846) and his 2nd wife (II)-Nancy McKenzie, Metis daughter (I)-Roderick MacKenzie (1772-1859) and an Indian woman. 

Augustin Nolin (1781-1848) married likely Pembina, 1822, Helene Ann Cameron, Metis

Charles Nolin (1823-1907) was born Cavanagh, North Dakota.

Clement Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1822 Sault Ste Marie, son Michael Nowlin (Nolin) a Pawnee Metis, b-1795, and  Ojibwa woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

Herion Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1822, arrived 1826 Sault Ste Marie, son Louis Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1788 arrived 1812 Sault Ste Marie, and Mary Ojibwa Metis b-1802 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28., 1836 treaty.

Joseph Piquette Jr. Ojibwa Metis, b-1822 Sault Ste Marie son Joseph Piquette Sr. a Canadian who ran away and Angeliick Ojibway, Ojibwa Metis, b-1800 Sault Ste Marie, epouse Gitsheo Ojibway an Indian, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  

Sault Ste. Marie, birth, Jean Baptiste Piquette, Ojibwa Metis, son Francois Piquette b-1800 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Louisa Piquette, Ojibwa Metis, b-1822, arrived 1832 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Her father is a drunkard and mother is dead.

Josette Poissen, Ojibwa Metis b-1814, arrived 1822 Sault Ste Marie, wife Louis Poisson of Red River and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as not of Michigan. 

Dakota, birth Michel Renville Metis (1822-1899) son Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow); married 1848 Margaret a Wahpaton woman.

Vincent Roy Jr. b-1795 Metis from La Pointe (Wisconsin) son Vincent Roy Sr. joined J. Sayer Sr & Co, (1794-1797) is with NWC 1798 at Pembina; son joined NWC (1819-1821) Athabasca,  HBC (1822-1832) Lac La Plue, retired likely La Pointe (Wisconsin). 

York Factory, marriage (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles Sr. (1795-1870) to (II)-Elizabeth (Betsey) Sinclair, Metis (1805-1878) daughter (I)-William Sinclair (1766-1818) and Margaret (Nahoway) Cree   One daughter (II)-Maria Simpson, Metis daughter (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) a Scot, first husband of Elizabeth; married Robert Wallace d-1838.

(II)-William Spencer Metis b-1822 Hudson Bay likely son (I)-John Hodges Spencer (1790-1881) and (II)-Ann Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) joined HBC (1838-1874) assigned Columbia District (1841-1844) Saskatchewan District (1846-1856); married (III)-Caroline Small b-1827 Metis daughter (II)-Patrick Small Metis (1789-1846) and Nancy Hughs
    (III)-Arthur Spencer bapt 1860 

Moose Factory, birth, (II)-Juilet Stewart, Metis b-1822, daughter (I)-David Ramsay Stewart (Stuart) b-1786 and (II)-Harriet Vincent, Metis b-1798: 

Jedediah Strong Smith (1799-1831) joined an expedition to the Upper Missouri River.

(II)-William Spenser Metis b-1822 Hudson Bay, son (I)-John Hodges Spenser (1790-1881) and (II)-Anne Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) Joined HBC (1838-1875) assigned (1842-1844) Fort Vancouver; (1846-1848) Lesser Slave Lake; (1848-1849) Rockey Mountain House; (1849-1956) Fort Carlton; married Caroline Small, one child is recorded:
    (III)-Arthur Spenser Metis baptised May 27, 1860 

Mary Tanner, Ottawa Metis, b-1822 Mackinac daughter of Tanner who cannot be trusted, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Margaret Terdiff, Cree Metis, b-1799, arrived 1822 Sault Ste Marie, wife Pierre Terdiff, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as a Cree. 

Jean Baptiste Terrien, Ottawa Metis, b-1822 St. Ignace, son Isaac Terrien and Ottawa Woman (Angelique),  this is second husband, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Geneviere Trotier, Ottawa Metis, b-1822 St. Ignace daughter Francois Trotier, Metis and Ottawa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Fort Gibraltar of the North West Company is renamed Fort Garry and became known as the upper Fort.  The Hudson Bay Company decided to replace the canoe with boats and ,therefore, the Metis with Orkney men.  Complaints followed, but the argument was that the Orkney men were cheaper.  Racism would become completely entrenched in the Hudson Bay Company systems this decade with no opposition.  Governor (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) a Scot wrote that even the Half Breeds of the Country, who have been educated in Canada, are blackguards of the very worst description.  This systemic discrimination would invade most business and Government Institutions and would continue in Canada for the next one hundred and sixty years.  The Company policy was not to employ Natural Canadians in any supervisory position.  This policy, designed to ensured the evolution of an English only Hudson Bay Company, would remain systemic into the twentieth century.  It is noteworthy that (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot had five known illegitimate Metis children.

The Hudson Bay Company wished to take action against petty traders like the Metis (IV)-Joseph Cadotte (b-1788) who are extended into the Rainy Lake Region.  Cadotte had been expelled from the Hudson Bay Company in 1821.  He still commanded much authority among the Indians and Metis.

The American Fur Company out of Sault Ste Marie established a trading post on Lake Temagami, between Lake Nipissing and Lake Timiskaming, Ontario.  The North West Company schooners completed the removal of material from Fort William to Sault Ste Marie.  The schooners became redundant.

Andrew Henry (1775-1833) and William H. Ashley created the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and advertised for Enterprising Young Men to ascend the Missouri to its source.  

(I)-Donald MacKenzie (1783-1851), John Rowand and Edward Harriot, with 108 men, 14 women and 21 children, again established Chesterfield House. It is noteworthy that they are surrounded by over 15,000 natives who are not pleased with a fort in their territory. This venture, like those of the past, failed and the Fort is again abandoned in April 27, 1823.

It is noted that 136 Ojibwa are in the Fort Alexander District.

The Saskatchewan brigade as it was called was it York Factory.  They were a boisterous bunch with the likes of Blaireaux or Badgers and a bully named Michel who taunted the Taureaux by luring their women with presents and promises of what younger bulls could do.  This resulted in numerous fights.  The English brought ashore their strongest sailor to prove to the Halfbreed Rivermen that hardened sailors could best them.  Blaireaux and the Englishman prepared themselves as betting resumed.  The Englishman was the first to score hits upon the Metis standing tall and proud.  He got little out of it.  The Riverman hunched low and charged the Englishman.  One swift movement, he jerked the the Sailor's foot up and knocked him flat with his shoulder.  The Englishman had a broken bone of his collar being broken in half and the contest was over.

The Governer of York Factory considered these Canadian Halfbreed (Metis) as living and died like dogs.  The Metis considered themselves as kings, superior in their freedom to all mankind.  

The Bow River Expedition, consisting of mostly Red River Metis, was created to reestablish Chesterfield House for the Hudson Bay Company.  The South Saskatchewan was called the Bow River at this time.  (I)-Donald MacKenzie (1772-1859) led the expedition, with John Rowland and Edward Harriot and another 105 men, 14 women and 21 children.  They were surrounded by some 15,000 natives.  This Fort was abandoned again on April 27, 1823.  The Red River Metis only hired on for one season, then returned to Red River.  Ted Harriott, married to Margaret Pruden, Metis and three Metis families from Fort Carlton joined the Bow River expedition.  Pruden Uncle of Harriott,  was commandant at Fort Carllton.  Translator Hugh Monroe, an Irish officer named Francis Heron, John Rowand, and a trader named Henry Fisher were on this expedition to build Chesterfield House.  The men were near mutiny as arrogant (I)-Donald MacKenzie (1772-1851) treated the men like dogs, with cruelty, kicking and lashing them if they didn't work hard enough.,

John McLean reported that the Indians at the Lake of Two Mountains at the mouth of the Ottawa River, cultivated the soil, and they engage as voyageurs.  The mission de Saint-Sulpice attempted to establish Indians as farmers.  However, they were not allowed to own their own land.  They were given the use of it within certain rigid bounds.  If they left the mission to live at other posts where there was no missionary and did not return the third year at sowing time, they would lose the right to their land and meadows.  Any Indian harvesting more than he needed for his family could not use his profit to buy the use of more land.  Any trader paying an Indian in drink, voided his contract.  If these conditions were imposed on the European people there would have been a revolution.   

(I)-John Hodges Spencer (1790-1881) joined HBC (1806-1857) married (II)-Anne Sinclair Metis  (1796-1861) daughter (I)-William Sinclair (1766-1818) and Margaret Nahoway native; 8 children listed in 1845 Fort George Rupers River;
    (II)-Edward Spencer Metis (1821-1898) born Montreal
    (II)-William Spence Metis b-1822 Montreal, married (III)-Caroline Small b-1827 Fort Carlton
    (II)-John Robert Spencer (1831-1893) married Ann Jane
    (II)-Rupert Spencer Metis (1836-1915) Ruperts River, married Mary Ann Ross
    (II)-Mary Spencer Metis b-1837 Ruperts River, married John Garton
    (II)-Miles Spencer Metis Ruperts River, (1839-1919) married Edith McLaren
    (II)-Charles A. Spencer Metis (1845-1872) Ruperts River, married Sarah Truithwaite b-1871
 California officially became part of Mexico.

January 22: Moose Factory, birth (II)-Robert Fletcher Baioley, Metis christened February 19, 1822, Moose Factory, son (I)-Joseph Beioley aka Bewley (1785-1859) from London and unknown Indian woman.

June 18: likely Red River, marriage (I)-John Scarth, Orkney (1763/1770-1833) to Nelly Cree Indian widow James Saunderson who had two Metis children Mary and Betsey Saunderson baptzed 1821.  John had a child with Isabel Gunn alias John Fubbister see 1807

July 1:  Cahokia, marriage (V)-Pierre Vaudry son (IV)-Antoine Vaudry born May 17, 1747 and (IV)-Anne Agnes Bourassa et Brassard, b-1757; married Julie Touchet.

July 9:   Red River, birth (II)-Harriett Fidler Metis b-1822, daughter (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822)  and Mary Swampy Cree Indian (1771-1826).  It is noteworthy that (I)-Peter died Manitobah (Fort Dauphin) this year leaving 11 children and a wife. 

August 6: baptism (II)-Caroline McKenzie, Metis daughter (I)-Donald McKenzie (1783-1851) and half breed woman probably Mary McKay daughter Alexander McKay.

August 6: baptism (II)-Rachel McKenzie, Metis daughter (I)-Donald McKenzie (1783-1851) and half breed woman probably Mary McKay daughter Alexander McKay.

August 25: (I)-John Pocock Holmes (1783-1858) employed HBC (1805-1821) married 1806, Ke-che-cow-e-coot, Metis alias Wee-misti-goos, Metis and Keese-cow-e-cumacoat, Metis or (II)-Betsy Cocking, Metis (1775-1835) daughter (I)-Matthew Cocking (1743-1799), epouse 1798 Fort York (I)-Thomas Stayer (1770-1827): received permission to take two children to England, likely (II)-George Holmes, Metis b-1897 and (II)-Elizabeth Holmes. Metis b-1813, young (II)-Charlotte Holmes, Metis b-1820 likely stayed back.. 

September 7:  York Factory, (I)-Donald Sutherland (1778-1872) of Clyne, Sutherlandshire, Scotland, sailed for Orkney, with two of his children both under 10 years who were baptized August 12, 1821, namely
    (II)-Jane Sutherland, Metis, 
    (II)-Sinclair Sutherland, Metis.

December 17: Manitobah (Fort Dauphin), death (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) leaving 11 children and a wife. 

December 12:  The US officially recognized Mexico as an independent nation.  




Edward Ashman, Ojibwa Metis, b-1823, arrived 1830 Sault Ste Marie son Samual Ashman, Mo-ga-son-a-qua of St. Marie, mother is his cousin, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Josette Boadivine, Ojibwa Metis b-1823, Sault Ste Marie, deserted by parents, listed March 28, 1936 treaty.

Louis Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1823, living 1836 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descendent of a Canadian tribe.

Ignace Calahisan worked as a freeman HBC (1823-1831) & (1843-1848) & (1855-1868) from a  “List of population/Canadian Freemen and Descendants Half Breed/belonging to the Hble Hudsons Bay Company’s Post of Lesser Slave Lake Saskatchewan District outfit 1837/38", and is recorded being “A Lunatick” and having one son.

George Calder, Metis, b-1823, York Factory, Hudson Bay, son James Calder and Nancy native; married Charlotte Lyons, b-1827, Red River daughter John Lyons and Margaret Kipling (1790-1870).

Margaret Calder, Metis, b-1823 Fort Alexander, N.W. daughter Marcus Calder and Maggie Cree; married William Dennett, Metis b-1827, Red River son William Dennett and Sophia Ballantyne Cree. 

Jenny Campbell, Metis born about 1823/24 Upper Mississippi District daughter Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman; married Oliver Cratte

Scott Campbell, Metis born 1790's in Upper Mississippi District, died 1851 son John Archibald (1761-1818) and married about 1823 Dakota woman.

William Campbell, Metis born about 1823/25 died 1855 Upper Mississippi District son Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman; married Oliver Cratte.

Indian Lake, Churchill, District: birth (II)-Thomas Charles, Metis, (1823-1885) son (I)-John Charles,(1799-1843) and (II)-Jane Auld, Metis (1800-1841) schooled in England joined HBC (1844-1872) New Caledonia, married Anastasia Carrier from Fort Babine
    (III)-Christine Charles Metis b-1853
    (III)-William Charles Metis b-1858
    (III)-Jennie Charles Metis b-1865.

John Clemont, Ojibwa Metis, b-1823, arrived 1828 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as father resides in Chicago and children are at school in the district.

Albany, Moose District, birth (II)-Nicol Comloquoy, Metis, daughter (I)-Alexander Comloquoy aka Cumloquoy and Cumloquey, b-1793, and Osnaburgh, Indian woman

(I)-John Cromartie (1792-1878) Orkney, employed HBC (1812-1870), 1st married about 1823 Elizabeth Indian Woman; 2nd married 1839 (II)-Catherine Park, Metis, (1816/17-1860) daughter (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) and Margaret Metisse (1796-1853)

Angelique Dauphiny, Ojibwa Metis, b-1823, arrived 1833 Mackinac, daughter Francois Dauphiny, and Josette Ojibwa Metis, b-1800, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as from Leech Lake Indians.

(II)-Charles Fidler, Metis b-1798 son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary Swampy Cree (1771-1826); married about 1823 Red River likely Metis or Indian girl maybe Charlotte Aikinson Metis b-1811 Red River daughter George Aikinson b-1770 and Margaret Indian or Metis.

Escabitchewan, birth (II)-John Finlayson, Metis (1823-1898) son (I)-Nicol Finlayson (1794-1877) and a native woman, Joined HBC (1839-1877) Lake Superior, married unknown
    (III)-Nicol Finlayson Metis 
    (III)-Elizabeth Finlayson Metis (1855-1942) married 1881 Thomas Aldridge Reynolds (1844-1926)

New Brunswick, Moose District, birth, (III)-Elizabeth Anne Gladman, Metis daughter (II)-Joseph Gladman, Metis (1796-1875), employed HBC (1814-1867) and (II)-Margaret Auld, Metis (1800-1857) daughter (I)-William Auld (1770-1830): married 1861 Archdeacon Thomas Vincent (1835-1907).

Jennet Gornow (Gornor), Ojibwa Metis b-1823 Sault Ste Marie daughter Louis Gornow (Gornor), Ojibwa Metis b-1790 and  Archangel Gornow (Gornor) aka Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798,  listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Mother is likely Say-shaw-ne-nie, see marriage 1815.

Maria A. Gravereat, Ojibwa Metis, b-1823 Mackinac, daughter Henry Gravereat and Charlotte Ojibwa Metis b-1790, listed March 28, 1836.

Hudson Bay, birth (III)-Henry Hanwell, Metis b-1823, son (II)-Henry Hanwell Jr. Metis , d-(1833-1834) employed HBC (1806-1833) as sailor, son (I)-Henry Hanwell (1750-1826) employed HBC (1766-1817, sailor and Indian woman.  Two other children of (II)-Henry are not named. 

Swan River, birth (II)-Caroline Isbister, Metis baptized August 8, 1831, Cumberland House daughter (I)-Thomas Isbister (1793-1936) and (II)-Mary Kennedy, Metis b-1807, daughter (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) and Mary Aggathas Isbister Metis Cree (1782-1863). 

James Kipp (1788-1880) is at the Mandan village on the Missouri River to build Fort Kipp.

Angelique La Fond, Ojibwa Metis b-1823 Sault Ste Marie, abandoned by father, living with mother, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Francois Laurent an Iroquois Metis from Riviere du Loup, Quebec joined NWC (1810-1821) Columbia District, HBC (1821-1823) Columbia District, deserted 1823 for Red River. 

Andrew Henry (1775-1833) of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company led a trading party across Nebraska and the Dakotas into the central Rockies.

Patrick McGulpin, Ojibwa Metis, b-1823, Mackinac son George McGulpin Sr., Ojibwa Metis, b-1762, Mackinac and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(III)-William McKay, Metis son (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877) and LaReine Trotter 

York Factory, baptism (II)-Margaret McKenzie, Metis daughter (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) employed HBC (1821-1846) and his 2nd wife (II)-Nancy McKenzie, Metis daughter (I)-Roderick MacKenzie (1772-1859) and an Indian woman. 

(II)-Catherine Park, Metis born likely Fort Edmonton, baptized 1823 likely Red River daughter (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) and Margaret Metisse, b-1796, died February 19, 1853, Red River.

Justina Piquette, Ojibwa Metis b-1823 Sault Ste Marie child Jean Baptiste Piquette, Ojibwa Metis b-1804 Sault Ste Marie and Geneviene Piquette, Ojibwa Metis b-1786, arrived 1796 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Nancy Robinson, Metis, b-1823, arrived 1828, Mackinac, daughter Robinson, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.   Abandoned by parents.

(VI)-Antoine Robidoux (1794-1860) of St. Louis, Missouri started his trader activities in Sante Fe, Mexico by taking out Mexican Citizenship.  He married Carmel Benavides the adopted daughter of the Governor of Mexico.  He also took out a permit to build a trading post.  In August he sold to William Sublette $3,806.50 worth of fur.  He then returned to the Uinta Basin, Utah this fall and spring and eventually purchased the Reed Trading Post in 1832 from William Reed, which was located at the confluence of the Uinta and Whiterock Rivers.. He built his new fort on higher ground called Fort Robidious aka Fort Uinta or Fort Winty or just Twinty.

Jedediah Smith (1799-1831) a mountain man with 15 men entered the Black Hills of Dakota for fur trading and suspected gold prospecting.  He had traveled Colorado , Wyoming and Utah during this period.

(II)-John Clarke Spence Metis bapt 1823 son (I)-Joseph Spence (1772-1856) and (II)-Sally Jefferson Metis; married 1832  Annanella McKenzie
    (III)-James Sutherland Spence bapt 1833
    (III)-Amelia Spence Metis bapt 1835
    (III)-Jessy Crafford Spence Metis bapt 1837

Margaritta Stevens, Ojibwa Metis, b-1823 Mackinac wife James Stevens b-1800 and Metis Woman, Marg is neice of Jugusha of Gd, Island, listed March 28, 1836 treaty..

(II)-William Auld Tait, Metis son (I)-William Tait b-1795, Orkney, and  Mary Indian or Metis,  born most likely Churchill, North West, epouse 1795, Churchill, (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) who abandoned her and their children when he returned to Scotland 1814..

Toussaint Terdiff, Cree Metis, b-1823 Sault Ste Marie, daughter Pierre Terdiff and Margaret Terdiff, Cree Metis, b-1799, arrived 1822 Sault Ste Marie,  listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as a Cree as reported by John Holiday. 

(III)-Alexander Thomas born 1823 Red River claimed himself to be the son of (I)-Thomas Thomas born 1792 however the Charles D. Denney papers suggest he was the son (II)-Richard Thomas born 1800 who was the son of (I)-Thomas Thomas.  Alexander would have a daughter (IV)-Eleanor Thomas who would marry Lawrence Garneau at Red River.

Elizabeth Thornton?, Ojibwa Metis, b-1823, arrived 1828 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as of North Western descent.

Margaritta Trotier, Ottawa Metis, b-1823 St. Ignace daughter Francois Trotier, Metis and Ottawa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

William Keating noted that a Miami chief, some of the time, dressed like a trader (Metis) and some times assumed the Indian costume, but always a capote rather than a blanket.  At Red River the first  Bois-Brules he encountered had blue capote with a hood; only used in bad weather.  The capote is secured around their waist by a military sash.  They wear a shirt of calico or painted muslin, moccasins and leather leggings which are fastened round the leg by garters, ornamented with beads, etc.

General Cuthbert Grant d-1854 married Marie McGillis a halfbreed this year; the first in a church.  His first wife was Elisabeth MacKay sister of John Richard McKay of HBC, Brandon post, then her sister Betsy MacKay leaving one son James born 1815, then  Dakota woman who produced a daughter named Nancy, then Madeline Desmarois and a daughter named Maria who married Pascal Breland the free trader son Pierre Breland (1760-1829).  Some suggest he bedded both McGillis sisters Margaret and Marie at the same time.  Margaret had one child and Marie nine children.  The next year Grant and the McGillis, Potts, Bolinot, Inkster and others settled on White Horse Plains to engage in agriculture being manipulated by the HBC and the Church.  About 100 hundred families followed Grant to White Horse Plains the following year.  Grant proved to be a better bison (buffalo) hunter than farmer and was often elected as chief captain of the hunt.

Sault Ste. Marie, arrived this year,  Calento Mero (Meron), Ojibwa Metis, b-1810, wife Louis Mero (Meron), listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Dakota, birth Madeline Renville Metis daughter Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).

Dakota, birth Rosalie Renville Metis daughter Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).

(I)-Peter (Patrick) Quinn (1787-1862) departed Red River for Fort Snelling.  He married about 1827 1st Marie Louise Finley, 2nd Louise Boucher.  He was pressed into the British Navy, and arrived York Factory, Hudson Bay at a young age.

Many Pembina Metis are encouraged to relocate to St. Boniface, Red River before the Americans occupy the land.

At Alkali Creek (Billings, Montana) 400 Blackfoot attacked 29 traders of the American Fur Company.  The stolen furs were traded to the Hudson Bay Company and later appeared on the London market.  An American recognized the stolen pelts.

Benjamin Gervais born 1786 Riviere du Loop who arrived Metis Red River Colony in 1803 married Red River Genevieve Larans born Berthierville (Boucherville??), died 1885 likely St. Paul, Minnesota.

The Parkland Assiniboine, Cree and Metis, near Fort Edmonton, numbered 20 tents, and the Strong Wood Assiniboine numbered 40 tents.  This is interesting in that Metis are not usually noted separate from the Indians, although they often traveled with them. 

Meanwhile, John Bigsby visited the Canadian village of Sault (Sault Ste Marie) to assess the situation after the Hudson Bay Company merger.  He reported the Sault consisted of a straggling line of fifteen log huts on marshy ground and a dwelling of a (III)-Charles Ermatinger (1776-1853) with a windmill.  (III)-Charles Ermatinger was attempting to encourage the Natives to grow grain.  The old North West Company Post consisted of a good resident house, large storehouse, stables, laborer dwellings, garden, fields and jetty for their schooner.  The cattle were in remarkably good condition.  The American village at Sault Ste Marie, called Fort Brady, headed by a Mr. John Johnson (1742-1830), an Irishman, who is stationed with troops, is the main establishment.  St. Mary's village (Bay Mills), ten miles down river, sustains itself by fishing.  There were ninety scattered shacks and wigwams, housing several hundred voyageurs, Mixed Blood and Chippewa.  Most had Chippewa wives, raising as many children as they could afford to feed.  Land claims at the village of Pauwayayteeg are heard at the Sault where brother in law (IV)-Joseph Cadotte (b-1788) swore that Marie Janette Piquette, widow of (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1797-1818), had lived upon her lot since 1807 and had never, at any time, removed from the same.  She, during this time, had cultivated and improved the front of said lot, and has a considerable portion of it fenced in.  He also affirmed her loyalty to the United States throughout a period when loyalties at the Sault were very much divided.  Judge Doty notes that the house appears very old and stands on the western boundary of her lot.  The widow Cadotte's claim is recognized and her name appears on the first county tax rolls of 1823 and 1825.

Steamboats were coming up the Mississippi River as far as St. Paul, Minnesota.

Stephen H. Long at Red River said that the Metis observed his Black Man, Andrew and immediately nick name him wapishka; meaning white. Such is their humor.

Jean Baptiste McKay Metis b-1823, joined HBC (1838-1847) Columbia District.

Dr. John McLoughlin (1784-1857) is at the Rainy Lake Post.

James P. Beckworth, who was traveling with William Henry Ashley, was adopted into the Crow confederacy, married an Indian woman and settled in the Absaroka region east of Yellowstone.

Fort Assiniboine is established at the confluence of the Freeman and Athabasca Rivers.

The Men of the Snake River Expedition, battled the Piegan Indians in Lemhi Valley, Idaho.

King Ferdinand VII of Spain rewarded one of his subjects with the title of Don Luis Maria Babeza de Vaca and granted him a few hundred thousand acres of land in America.  He had legal ownership to tie City of Los Vegas and much of New Mexico.  Eventually the family was deprived of Los Vegas but in return received 400 thousand acres extending into Colorado.

June 20:   Drummond Island, death (I)-Robert Dickson (Mascotapah (Red Hair Man)) (1768-1823) who was married to Helen Totowin.  He was a very influential trader in both the old and new North West. 

July 8/22:  Cumberland House, birth (II)-Roderick Kennedy, Metis, baptized November 4, 1830, Orkney d-1911, son (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) and, Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) aka Mary Isbister aka Bear (1782-1863), Cree Metis: married 1847 Mary Mactavish b-1817 widow George Ross and daughter (I)-John George Mactavish and Charlotte Thomas

August 1:   Mackinac, marriage Augustin Hamilin son Louis Hamlin and Josephte; married to Angelique Kiminitchawgan daughter of Kiminitchaw and SichigikSA.

August 16:  York Factory, the Reverend David Jones b-1798, an Anglican priest arrived for his trip to Red River (1823-1838),  Reverend John West the first minister of Red River departed for England. 

October 14:  Red River Settlement, Reverend David Jones (1798-1844), an Anglican priest arrived to start his missionary work.  He resided with Robert Parker Pelly until his house was made ready.

October 29:  Red River, baptism, (II)-William Dunnet, Metis , died June 1893 son (I)-William Dunnet aka Dunnett, Dennet (1780-1864) employed HBC (1796-1821) and (II)-Sophia Ballendine, Metis, b-1791: married November 21, 1844, Margaret Calder.

November:  Red River Settlement, Reverend David Jones (1798-1844), an Anglican priest moved into the house built by Reverend John West in 1822.  The day he moved in Chief Pigwys (Peguis) arrived to get rum.  Jones said he wanted boys for his school.  Peguis said "I have listened very much to what you say, and they are fine promises; we want out children to become like white people, to get plenty of Indian corn, wheat, and potatoes; for since you white people have got our lands, we are very poor.  Before that we had plenty -- our rivers were full of fish, and we always conquered our enemies; but now the white people promise much and give nothing.  And now you come and want our children""

December 7: Red River, baptism (II)-David Flett, Metis son (I)-George Flett (1775-1850) and (II)-Margaret (Peggy) Whitford, Metis b-about 1798 



Richard Thomas (1) (ID # 4676) born 1800 (some records say 1806) Albany District of Hudson Bay Company baptized November 13, 1837 St. John Anglican Church, Red River.  He moved to Red River 1820, and died, July 8, 1860, Little Britain, Red River son Thomas Thomas-(4) born 1781

Richard Thomas (2) born 1806 Hudson Bay Post Albant River, North West Territories died July 7, 1860 Little Britain, North West Territories son Thomas Thomas;  married about 1828 Eleanor

Married: about 1820 Eleanor Thomas at Grand Rapids, Red River

Married:  2nd marriage December 24, 1837 Indian Village, Grand Rapids (marriage blessed by William Cochran of H.B.C.) to (II)-Eleanor (Ellen) Thomas born September 1805, baptized, November 13, 1837, St. John Anglican Church, Red River, died, June 22, 1878 Jack Fish Creek as recorded St. Andrews Church,  daughter (I)-John George Thomas alias Thomas
Thomas-(2) born 1766 and Mienish Cree born 1781.  Script land claimed by widow Eleanor Thomas.  Eleanor Thomas 1st marriage Peter Foy.

1835 census lists                       1M-16         1F-15
1838 census lists                       3M-16         2F-15
1840 census lists born 1800 native with 3M-16,        3F-15
1843 census lists born 1800 native with 4M-16, 1F+15, 3F-15
1847 census lists                1M+16, 2M-16, 1F+15, 2F-15
The St. John Anglican Church records lists the children in the following order: (*1)

ELEVEN CHILDREN ARE RECORDED; likely represents two Richards

Alexander Thomas (2) born 1823 Little Britain, Red River, died, April 23, 1869, son Eleanor.  Its highly possible that Alexander is the son of Peter Foy?  1835 census tends to support this assumption.  Family baptism of November 13, 1837 does not include this Alexander.

(*2)Charles Thomas Thomas born 1828 Little Britain, Red River, baptized, November 13, 1837, St. John Anglican Church Red River, died September 18, 1843 son Eleanor.  Its highly possible that Charles is the son of Peter Foy?  1835 census tends to support this assumption.

(*1)Matilda Thomas born 1829 Little Britain, Red River, baptized, November 13, 1837, baptized St. John Anglican Church Red River, died November 2, 1843 St. Andrews, Red River, living Red River Settlement.

(*3)Richard William Thomas (ID # 4677) born, May 7, 1834, Little Britain, Red River, baptized, November 13, 1837, St. John Anglican Church Red River, son Eleanor Thomas,  married (II)-Mary Thomas born, September 29, 1834, daughter (I)-John George Thomas and Mary Cree.  (II)-Mary Thomas second marriage Richo Aouiad.  Script issued to Richard May 22, 1876.

Victorine Thomas born February 25, 1837 claims Richard Thomas as her father but no other records verify this claim.  Could be his child by a different woman.  1838 census tends to support this claim?  Victorine is not included in the family baptism of November 13, 1837.  She is likely not the daughter of this Eleanor.

(*4)Alexander Thomas (3) born 1835 (ID # 4668) baptized November 27, 1837 St. John Anglican Church, Red River married 1851 Victoria Taylor.

 (*5)Louise (Louisa) Thomas born 1828 Little Britain, Red River, baptized, November 27, 1837, baptized St. John Anglican Church Red River, daughter Eleanor; married, July 25, 1866, a William Smith (ID # 3507) widower born 1830 son  John James Smith.

(*6)Margaret Thomas born 1837 baptized March 22, 1839 St. John Anglican Church, Red River daughter Richard Thomas and Eleanor; married Peter Hourie born 1849 (ID # 2247),  marriage source is Genealogy of First Metis Nation and appears to be an error?

(*7)John George Thomas baptized St. John Anglican Church December 2, 1841 son Eleanor, received land script January 28, 1879.

Catherine Thomas born about 1842 died before 1877 and land script denied indicating possible death after 1870.

Anne Thomas baptized June 24, 1845 St. John's Anglican Church, Red River daughter Eleanor.

Nancy Thomas born 1846 Red River daughter Richard Thomas (2) (ID # 4676) born 1800 married John Favel (ID# 1519) born 1843 Red River, source Genealogy of First Metis Nation.

Henry Thomas (ID # 4678) born February 9, 1848 St. Andrews North West son Richard Thomas a metis and Ellenor a metis;  married April 15, 1869 St. Peters, Red River a Charlotte Pausien born October 1852, 1875 script suggests he married Charlotte Parisien born October 1848 St. Peters, Manitoba daughter Jean Baptiste Parisien.  Script issued May 22, 1876.

(II)-William Todd Metis Jr. bapt-1823 Pembina or York Factory, d-1871, son (I)-Dr. Eilliam Todd (1784-1851) and Marianne Ballentyne Metis; joined HBC (1841-1864) 1841-Swan river else Columbia and New Caledonia District.  
1st married 1849 Sarah Jane Johnstone:
     (III)-Albert Todd Metis b-1846
     (III)-Samuel Todd Metis b-1850
    (III)-Isabelle Todd Metis b-1852
    (III)-William J. Todd Metis b-1853 married Marie Dufresne
    (III)-Donald Todd Metis b-1855
    (III)-Fanny Todd Metis b-1857
2nd marriage 1868 Fanny Anne Hourie Todd Metis b-1842 
    (III)-Mary Ann Todd Metis b-1846



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