The North West Company issues an edict that says to only  marry daughters of white men.
Racialism is being built into the fur trade system.
Racism was first
introduced by the English and now the Scots.
The Hudson Bay Company Orkney men form a union.
The response is that no more men from Orkney are to be sent out to America.


METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1800-1849 index



The Thomas Douglas obtains controlling interest in the Hudson Bay Company.
The British did not believe they had the right to sell the land, either by authority or occupation.



The Hudson Bay Company could not pay a dividend; it was over drafted  £50,000 at the bank. Committee members were forced to provide operating cash. There was talk of withdrawal from the fur trade in Canada. Thomas Douglas (1771-1820), the Scot son of Dumbar Douglas and Helen Hamilton, is busy buying the depressed Hudson Bay stock.

Louis Beaubien Jr, Ojibwa Metis, b-1809, arrived 1820 Mackinac son Louis Beaubien Sr., Ojibwa Metis and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Joseph Beaudry dit Nabestiwayan Metis (1809-1881)  son Joseph Beaudry (Beaudrie and Old Goudrie) Metis (1780-1863) and Sophie Latour (Karorwaste) b-1819 which could be a bapt date or represents two different women?  Joined HBC (1855-1869) Saskatchewan, married 1837 Fort Edmonton Louise Ladouceur Metis born 1820 Lac La Biche, d-1906 daughter Joseph Latour
    Marguerite Beaudry Metis b-1839
    Jean Bapriste Beaudry Metis b-1840 Devil Lake aka Lac Ste Anne
        Noel Beaudry Metis b-1865 St Albert married Marie Anne Breland b-1844
    Alexander Beaudry Metis b-1841/42
    Edward Beaudry Metis (1843-1865) married St. Albert Rosalie Dumont Metis b-1844
    Narcisse Beaudry Metis b-1845 married Lucie Breland b-1848 Red River 
        Justin Beaudry Metis b-1878 Egg Lake (Alberta)
        Louison Beaudry Metis b-1881 Egg Lake
        Placid Beaudry Metis
    Elizabeth Beaudry Metis b-1861 St Albert married Jean Baptiste L'Hirondelle Metis b-1854
    Marie Beaudry Metis b-1873 St Albert
    Lucie Beaudry Metis b-1875 St Albert    

North West birth Joseph Berthelet, Metis son Toussaint Berthelet aka Savoyard dit Berthelet, Savoyard, b-1780, and Marguerite Saulteux

John Black married 1809 NWT Marguerite Sauvagese.

Jean Baptiste Bruce born 1809 Red River des Metis Settlement son Pierre Bruce and Marguerite Durocher, living St. Boniface, Red River 1870.

In the Upper Mississippi District, Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851), who married Dakota woman, was taken east by Meriwether Lewis of Lewis and Clark, but upon his mysterious death this year, Scott returned to the Upper Mississippi District.

Duncan Campbell born 1802 who married Dakota woman wintered until 1810 on the Mississippi River with Michel Cadotte 

Jean Baptiste Champlain sold lot #26, French Land Claims, to Antoine LeClair at Peoria (Poiria), Illinois

(I)-Alexander Christie (1783-1872) employed HBC (1809-1849)  at Moose (1809-1816), married (II)-Ann Thomas Metis b-1813, or 1796 bapt 1819, epouse (II)-Thomas Hodgson (1789-1865) daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822) and Margaret Indian d-1813.  Chief Factor and Governor of Assinibois, Upper Fort Gary (1833-1839)
        (II)-Alexander Christie, Metis b-1818 Rupert's House 
        (II)-William Joseph Christie, Metis (1824-1899)
        (II)-Margaret Christie, Metis, married (I)-John Black (1817-1879).

Albany, marriage, (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) son (I)-Jenkins Daniel (1740-1824/25) employed HBC (1765-1825) and Indian Woman; married an Indian Woman.

Pierre Dorion, Metis (1780/82-1814), served as an interpreter on the Missouri River for Manuel Lisa.  Lisa obtained a warrant against Dorion in the spring of 1811 for an unpaid debt that Pierre had owed as a former employee at Fort Mandan.

John Ferguson (Farquarhson) Metis (1807/09-1875), * Joined HBC (1829-1836) Swan River, 
1st married Sophie Montour b-1832, 
    Daniel Ferguson b-1841 Red River
    Clara Farquarchson b-1847 married Joseph Larance Metis b-1836/42 Fort Edmonton 
    John Ferguson married 1885 Marguerite Paul b-1855, Joh may belong to Josephte or Marie
    Nancy Ferguson aka Farquarhson born 1806 or 1833 or 1844/49 Norway house married to a McDonald, I think this represents 2 maybe three different Nancy, b-1806 is likely a sister of John who married 1816 Red River (I)-Donald McDonald b-1797 and churched 1826, 1833 is likely a daughter of John and 1844? 
2nd married Josephte Morrissette, 
3rd married Marie Wilkie b-1832, 
4th married 1841, Monique Hamelin, born October 12, 1822, Pembina River.
* this could be the same person called Ferguson Letewdre aka Jean Baptiste Letewdre aka Mooshwan b-1807 Devil Lake (Lac Ste Anne who married A-tee-ka-po the son of Jean Baptiste Letendre b-1790 Red River.???

James Gait born 1809 Red River Settlement son James Gait, living St. Andrews, Red River 1870.

Michel Grandbois, b-1781, Quebec, married 1809, Red River des Metis, Marguerite Landry.

(I)-John Edward Harriott (1797-1866) joined HBC (1809-1828) east of the Rockies; HBC (1828-1832) Columbia Dostrict; HBC (1832-1855) again east of Rockies, retired 1855 to Red River.  John Edward Harriot appears to have had three successive wives and seven or more children. The names of his first wife and children have not been traced. 
On September 18, 1838, while the Catholic priests were at Fort Edmonton, Harriott and Nancy Rowand Metis (1818?-51), daughter of Chief Factor John Rowand and Louise (Lisette) Umphreville Indian/metis, had their marriage formalized. Two of their daughters were:
    (II)-Christine Harriott Metis b-1836 
    (II)-Flora Harriott Metis b-(1837. After Nancy/Anne’s death in 1851, Harriot married Francis Bunn Bunn b-1810 of the Red River Settlement daughter Thomas Bunn (1765-1853) and Phoebe Sinclair Metis (1792-1848). According to a will dated June 25, 1858 his children by Frances were 
    (II)-Margaret Harriott Metis married 1848 (III)-John Rowand Jr Metis (1812-1865) claims Margaret Ann Pruden as her mother 
    (II)-Rachel Harriott Metis 
    (II)-John Edward Harriott Metis  
    (II)-Victoria Harriott Metis  
    (II)-Alexander Harriott Metis 

Andrew Henry, (1775-1833), born Pennsylvania son George Henry and Margaret Young led a party of the American Fur Company to Three Forks on the Missouri River. 

Alexander Henry the younger (1764-1814) notes that on a trip from Fort Vermilion (Alberta) to Fort William the brigade had 11 canoes, manned by 5 men and 1 woman.  It would appear the women are full working members but don't appear on the records of account.  If they were not the husbands would have to pay for their trip.

(I)-John Hourie Sr. b-1779 Orkney married 1809, Margaret Indian b-1787 North West Territories.

(II)-James Inkister Jr. Metis, born April 6, 1809, Brandon House NWT, son (I)-James Inkster Sr., born July 26, 1774 Orkney married 1805 likely Albany, NWT, Mary Cree Indian b-1790 most likely North West; married 1830 (II)-Laetitia (Letitia) Sutherland, Metis, b-1815 NWT daughter (I)-James Sutherland Sr., and Jane Flett a Native (1785-1835).

Sault Ste Marie, marriage (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) Sault Ste Marie married Mary Saulteaux Indian woman d-1838, churched January 11, 1821 Red River.

Pierre Louisignan, Ottawa Metis, b-1809, Mackinac son Pierre Louisignon, Ottawa Metis and Ottawa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Lives in Detroit.

(I)-Allen McDonnell (1778-1859) employed XYCo. (1799-1804); NWC (1804-1821); HBC (1821-1852); married Margaret a native woman, baptized, December 8, 1833,  by Rev. David T. Jones; Three sons were reported in his will, Angus C., Allen, and John as well as a daughter. 


Edward Rose aka Cut Nose and Five Scalps, a Metis who is living with the Arikaree Indians on the Missouri as an interpreter.

(II)-Peter Skene Ogden born 1790 Quebec died Oregon City 1854, he joined the North West Company this year and had a bad reputation for violence which delayed his been accepted as a Chief Trader for two years after the merger with the Hudson Bay Company.
(II)-Peter Skene Ogden (1794-1854) son Quebec Judge (I)-Issac Ogden and 2nd wife Sarah Hanson died Three Rivers;  He  joined American Fur Company, NWC 1809, assigned 1810 Île-á-la-Crosse, Saskatchewan, assigned 1814 Green Lake Post 100 miles south.  In 1816, HBC clerks reported that Ogden killed an Indian who had traded with the Hudson's Bay Company. The Indian was "butchered in a most cruel manner," according to HBC officer James Bird. Although many in the North West Company viewed this as a necessary part of living in the Northwest, the HBC viewed Ogden as a dangerous man whose actions were deplorable, especially considering his background as the son of a judge. Ogden was charged with murder, and the North West Company moved him further west to the Columbia District, to attempt to avoid any further confrontations with the HBC

Jean LaDiroute born 1809 Red River des Metis Settlement son Philibert LaDeroute, living St. Boniface, Red River 1870.

Robert Logan, (1773-1866), a clerk at Sault Ste Marie who later settled in Red River, ignored the North West Company edict to marry daughters of white men and took an Indian woman as his wife.  He is not alone in this practice, as this ensured the man of trading privileges among the woman's tribe as well as temporary security if he failed to establish himself when he shed his servant position for a trader position.  In many cases this was the only method of getting ahead in the company, and the fine was a small inconvenience.

(I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) married about 1809 Albany Native woman, baptized November 29, 1836 and married 1842 John Fielding

Julia Pelkey, Ojibwa Metis b-1809, arrived 1831 Mackinac, sister to Angelique P. La Sieur Ojibwa Metis b-1828 and Catherine St. Onge Ojibwa Metis b-1810, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Ignaces Pelotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1809 Mackinac, son Pelotte a Frenchman and L'Arbre Croche Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Josephte Pelletier, Metis B-1809 Red River des Metis, died 1864 Red River, daughter, Antoine Pelletier and Marguerite a Native; married 1824, Red River, Antoine Fagnant Sr., b-1804, died 1856, Red River son Raphael Fagnant, b-1759 and Cree Woman..

Margaret Racette, b-1809, Lake Winnipeg, daughter Charles Racette b-1766 North West Territories married about 1802, Josephte (Francoise) Sauteuse a Chippewa Native b-1780, North West Territories; married 1824, (II)-James Swain, Metis born February 14, 1799, d-1877, son (I)-James Swain Sr. b-1775 and a Native woman..

Marie Anne Rivard, b-1809 Red River des Metis daughter Jean Baptiste Rivard Sr., b-1772, and Therese Belanger, b-1778; married February 28, 1830 Red River, Andre Carrier Jr., Metis born July 28, 1807, Red River des Metis son Andre Carrie Sr., b-1780/82, Canada.

(II)-James (Jacques) Short, Metis, b-1810/11 son (I)-James Short (1767-1840) and Betsey Saulteaux (Chippewa Native) (1783-1863); married Angelique Saulteaux.

Charlotte Spense born 1809 daughter James Spense, living St. John, Red River 1870.

(II)-James Swain Jr. Metis (1799-1887) son James Swain Sr, b-1775 and native woman, joined HBC (1809-1823) Severn, York,  married 1826 Margaret Racette b-1809 
    (III)-Charlotte Swain Metis bapt 1827 married 1849 Richard Clark 
        Richard Clark b-1849
    (III)-Margaret Swain Metis bapt 1827 married 1826 Image Plains, (I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878)
    (III)-James Swain Metis bapt 1834
    (III)-Charles Swain Metis bapt 1839
    (III)-Catherin Swain Metis bapt 1842, d-1846
    (III)-Anne (Nancy) Swain Metis bapt 1845 d-1846 
    (III)-Sarah Swain Metis bapt 1847
    (III)-Thomas Swain Metis bapt 1849

Antoine Vandal, Metis, b-1809, Red River des Metis, died August 25, 1882, Red River, son Antoine Vandal Jr., born April 18, 1785, Red River des Metis, died December 17, 1870, Red River and Angelique Saulteaux an Ojibwa Native, b-1780.

Elizabeth Wilkie, Metis b-1809 Pembina,  married about 1827 Red River,  Martin Jerome, Metis b-1800 Red River, a hunter.

The Red River Valley is reported in flood this year.

Labrador administration is attached back to Newfoundland.  In 1760 it was attached to Newfoundland then, in 1774, it was attached to Quebec.  The Inuit a.k.a. Eskimo and Metis continue to be largely ignored.

The North West Company built four schooners at Fort William between 1809 and1821.

John Mowatt of the British Hudson Bay Company, shot and killed Aeneas McDonnell of the Canadian North West Company, resulting in his hand being branded.  John Mowatt also spent six months in jail in Montreal.   (I)-William Corrigal aka Corrigie (1774-1832) Orkney, was in Montreal as a witness as he was in charge of Eagle Lake Post (west of Lake Nipigon) and was implicated.  He was imprisoned but was later tried and acquitted

Alexander Henry the Younger, (1764-1814) reported that the North West Company usually brings down 300 to 500 bags (45,000 pounds) of pemmican and upwards of 200 kegs of grease each spring.  Some of the grease is shipped to Fort William, but the whole of the pemmican is required for the people going out in the spring and coming back in the fall.

Andrew Wedderburn, a.k.a. Colvile, joined the Hudson Bay Committee and is soon followed by his brother-in-law, John Halkett. He introduced his new system that was to replace the defeatist attitude of the committee. The London standard was eliminated, allowing Masters of posts to fix their own standards of trade, and they were allowed profit sharing like the French Companies. They were told to abandon their traditional submissive nature, and it was suggested they practice a determined firmness. Some believe this is the turning point of the Hudson Bay Company. (I)-Colin Robertson (1783-1842), a former North West Company man (1803-1809) & HBC (1814-1840), suggested enlisting scores of Canadians so that the Hudson Bay Company could start an immediate onslaught on the North West Company's position in Athabasca. He said these Canadian voyageurs are spirited, enterprising and extremely fond of the country.  The London Committee, however, were not prepared to take such a bold step at this time.

Jean Claude Campenes Ou Campenet; canonier de la garnison de Quebec; il etait. November 15, 1756, a Charlesbourg, et en 1778, a Ste Anne de la Perade.

John Colter (1774-1813) and John Potts d-1809 were attacked by the Blackfoot when they ran for their lives.  John Potts was killed and Colter escaped.

At Lesser Slave Lake, Tolibee (an Ojibwa) was appointed Trading Captain by the Hudson Bay Company, as was his 1/2 brother, Jean Baptiste Desjarlais (Nishicabo), a Metis.  They commanded a sizable group of Metis, Ottawa, Ojibwa and Iroquois traders.  These traders wielded considerable power, and Robert Kenny of the Hudson Bay Company was determined to undermine this authority.  He wrote that these people know well how to take advantage of the times, but it is to be hoped that a time will very soon come when these fellows will be kept under by the power of a single trader without opposition. 

The Gay Head Indians, who lived on the western end of Martha's Vineyard, were a tribe of mixed-bloods; Indian and Negro.


ALGONKIAN Speaking peoples

Ojibwa  (includes 2,800 living north shore Lake Superior)  5,100 to 5,300
Cree                                                                                  3,800
Cree and Ojibwa (not differenced in trade at Fort Dauphin     600 
Blackfoot, Blood and Piegan                                              5,700 
Gross Ventre                                                                     1,150 

ATHAPASKAN Speaking peoples

Sarcee  (Thompson estimated their numbers as 650)              300 Others                                                                              11,000                 


Assiniboine                                                                           2,900

 TOTAL                                                                                        30,600 

It is important to keep in mind that these are very rough estimates, based on rough assumptions and are not census related.  

(I)-Colin Robertson (1783-1842) recounts how John McDonald of Garth was besieged by Indians at Chesterfield House and scared away the Indians by a kite.

Manuel Lisa (1772-1826) along with William Clark (of Lewis & Clark), Andrew Henry, Jean Pierre Chouteau, and others formed a company called the St. Louis Missouri Fur Company.

February 3:  The Illinois Territory is created by the US government.

March 13:   Patrick Myuagh deserted Fort St. Joseph for Fort Mackinac and freedom, but he was found frozen to death only 30 miles from the Fort.  His companion, Keary, suffered frostbite so severe that all his fingers and both legs had to be amputated.

May 25:  Cahokia, marriage (V)-Guillaume Vaudry son (IV)-Antoine Vaudry born May 17, 1747 and (IV)-Anne Agnes Bourassa et Brassard, b-1757; married 1st Rosalie Bourdon, Sauvagesse, daughter of Joseph a savage; 2nd marriage May 18, 1829 Cahokia Judith Touchet, daughter Joseph Touchet.

May 26:  Cahokia, marriage (IV)-Louis Lepage, Metis, son (III)-Joseph Lepage, Metis, b-1750 and Genevieve Frechet: married Julie Alarie. 

June 13:  The Mackinac Fur Company, which was Canadian controlled in the 1809 season June 13, 1809 to July 28, 1809, fielded about 85 traders to the following area, Mississippi river, Lower Mississippi, Missouri River, Illenois River, Rivier St. Peter, Lake Superior, Prairie du Chein (Wisconsin), Le Bay, Milwake, Folles Avoine, River St. Crox and other areas.   The drop in traders is the result of a new Company the Michilimackinac Fur Company that started up July 17, 1809 to July 26, 1809 and fielded 32 traders to the Mississippi River, Le Prairie, Prairie du Chien, Lake Huron, Akansas, and Le Baie.  The Cadotte Fur Company was formed with 8 traders, working La Pointe (Wisconsin), and Lac Courte Oreille.  Dennis Julien formed a group of 17 traders to work the Mississippi River, and St. Joseph. 

June 17:  Holy Lake. N.W.T., birth, (II)-Alban Fidler, Metis b-1809, son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822)  and Mary Swampy Cree, Indian (1771-1826); married Elizabeth Hallett, Metis b-1814 Saskatchewan River daughter Henry Hallett and Catherine Dungas Metis, b-1780.  

June 17, 1806:  (II)-Alban Fidler, Metis, born June 17,1806 Holy Lake, NWT son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822)  and Mary Cree, Indian (1771-1826); married Elizabeth Hallett, b-1814 Saskatchewan daughter Henry Hallett and Catherine Dungas, b-1780.   

June 17, 1810:  Holy Lake, NWT, birth (II)-Alban Fidler, Metis, son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary a Swampy Cree (1771-1826); married Elizabeth Hallett, b-1814 Saskatchewan River. 

June 19:   Baptiste La Fleur, interpreter, and Stuart went to St. John's to discover the whereabouts of his brother who is traveling the Rocky Mountain portage to St. John.  The fate of the party is unknown.

June 29:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Cadotte and Co. sent Francois Larose, Francis Landrie, Joseph Rivard, Pierre Rondeau, Joseph Beaupre and Jean Baptiste Leveille to Lac Courte Oreille. (near Hayward, Sawyer County, Wisconsin)  or (more importantly south of La Pointe on Lake Superior).

June 30:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Cadotte and Co. sent Alexis Lavalle to La Pointe and Francois Lemieux to Lac Courte Oreille (near Hayward, Sawyer County, Wisconsin)  or (more importantly south of La Pointe on Lake Superior).

July 10:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Pierre Gouin (Girou) or Gnou to winter St. Joseph.

July 17:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged (IV)-Benjamin Cadotte Metis b-1785 to winter Mississippi.

September:   Moose Factory (I)-Isabel Gunn, alias John Fubbister, and her illegitimate son who was fathered by (I)-John Scarth,  returned to Orkney.  She arrived in 1806, disguised as a boy. 

September 15:  Alexander Henry the Younger (1764-1814) is at Fort Vermilion on the Saskatchewan.  He recorded the mixing of liquor for the Indians to make a nine gallon keg, we generally mix 4-5 quarts of high wine and then fill with water.  This is called Blackfoot Rum.  For the Cree and Assiniboine we use 6 quarts high wine.  For Saulteurs 8-9 quarts.  Therefore costs were low and profits were high.  

October:  Alexander Henry the Younger, (1764-1814), on the Saskatchewan River, opposite the mouth of the Vermilion River, with eleven canoes of trade goods, noted James Bird and his family arrived by canoe from York Factory, then departed with his family on horseback, presumably for Fort Edmonton.  Jimmy Jock Bird is the Halfbreed son of  James Bird.

October:  (I)- David Thompson (1770-1857) is at the Flathead (Salish) Post (Libby, Montana) with (II)-Finan (Finnan) McDonald (1782-1851), James McMillan, Michel Kinville, Metis, Francois Sans Facon, Metis, Francois Gregoire, Metis, Pierre Gregnon, Metis, Francois Rivet, Metis, Brucier, Pembrook (Pemruck), Bellaire, James McMillan and a voyager, likely Michel Bordeaux dit Bourdon, Metis and Jean Baptiste Boucher.

October 26:  Moose River, birth (II)-Isabella Spence, Metis daughter (I)-Peter Spence (1777-1855) and (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis, (1788-1843)




Mackinac Fur Company (1808-1810) and, later, the Michilimackinac Fur Company, remained both under British control.   This year these companies would breakup into independent smaller entities until 1811 because of the impending war of 1812.

John Jacob Astor of New York sought French Canadians as the bulk of his employees for his venture west of the Rockies seeing their work habits as beneficial to his enterprise.  To him, the French Canadians: ..plumed themselves upon their hardihood and their capacity to endure privations...[they were]  men seasoned to hardships, who cared for neither wind nor weather.  They could live hard, lie hard, sleep hard, eat dogs! - in a word they were ready to do and suffer anything for the good of the enterprise.  Regarding their down time, Astor tempered his exuberance in that the engage like the coureurs des bois; the intervals of their long, arduous, and laborious expeditions, were prone to pass their time in idleness and rivalry about the trading posts or settlements squandering their hard earnings in heedless conviviality, and rivaling their neighbors, the Indians, in indolent indulgence and an imprudent disregard of the morrow.

George Atkinson, b-1770 married about 1810 mostly likely Red River des Metis, a woman named Margaret  
    Charlotte Atkinson Metis b-1811 married Charles Fidler b-1798?

Antoine Azure, Metis, b-1810 Red River des Metis married to Charlotte Pelletier, Metis b-1815 Red River des Metis. Genealogy First Metis Nation.  (Antoine Azure, Metis, b-1794 Red River des Metis married about 1835 Red River, Charlotte Pelletier, Metis b-1792 Red River des Metis.) 1850 census. 

Joseph Azure Jr., son Joseph Azure Sr., b-1769, Sorel, Quebec, died January 28, 1832 Red River and Lizette Manaecha, Native, b-1775; married 1832 Red River, Marie Anne Millet dit Beauchemin, born March 28, 1821, Red River daughter Andre Millet dit Beauchemin, b-1778 and Charlotte Pelletier, b-1785.

Jean Baptiste Letendre dit Batoche aka Okimawaskawikinam b-1762, Quebec is working as a free trader in the NWT into the 1820's.

William Bear, Metis, b-1810 N.W.T. died before 1881, son White Bear and Metis woman; married 1837 Margaret Tate, b-1813,   Joined HBC (1856-1860) at Red River assigned Saskatchewan, living Swampy Village, the following children were baptised Red River, the following dates are likely baptism dates
    John Bear Metis b-1836
    James Bear Metis b-1838 married 1837 Amelia Thomas bapt 1841 Red River
    Margaret Bear Metis b-1840
    Maria Bear Metis b-1842
    William Bear Jr Metis b-1844
    Philip Bear Metis b-1846
    Nancy Bear Metis b-1848
    Thomas Bear Metis b-1849
    Joseph Bear Metis b-1853
    Magnus Bear Metis b-1855
    Henry Bear Metis bapt-1859 Prince Albert and Nepowewan

Alexis Beaudoin was in 1810-11 with Perrault on the north side of Lake Superior; in 1818 he was employed by the American Fur Company at Lac du Flambeau. 

James Bridger a mountain man reported meeting the Bannock People in southeastern Idaho, where they ranged into Wyoming and Montana.  Some called them the Robbers and others the Snakes which was usually applied to the Shoshone People. 

Prairie du Chien, birth Mary Brisbois, Metis (most likely birth year) daughter Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein; married Pierre Lachapelle. but George Pascal Brisbois is listed born this year so could be 1811 to 1813? 

(II)-Matildia Bruce, Metis b-1810 Saskatchewan District N.W.T. daughter (I)-Benjamin Bruce (1771-1823) and Matildia, Metis b-1778: married Donald McKenzie, Metis b-1800, one child is noted Matilda McKenzie, Metis b-1849 (1840?) who married about 1869 Mathew Cook, Metis, b-1848 N.W.T. (1891 census claims Nova Scotia) son Joseph Cook b-1792 N.W.T. and Catherine Sinclair, Metis, b-1785. 

Joseph Caplette, b-1810, Red River des Metis, died April 12, 1875 son Joseph Caplette (1770-1862) and Angelique Guiboche (1785-1862); married Mary Brancoeur. 

(II)-John Clarke, (1781-1852) left the North West Company and joined the Pacific Fur Company of John Jacob Astor (1763-1848), who appears to have been a relative of his mother.

Jean Baptiste Contwa, Ojibwa Metis, b-1810, Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty. 

Albany, birth, (III)-John Daniel, Metis son (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) and Indian Woman

Albany, birth, (III)-Nancy Daniel, Metis baptized Red River November 9, 1832, daughter (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) and Indian Woman; married Donald Johnson

Francois Delain, Metis b-1810 Red Lake, a voyager, married about 1837 Satan (Satin),Metis, born 1812 Red Lake.

George Drouillard of the Missouri Fur Company is killed at Three Forks, Montana by the Blackfoot.  John Colter's expedition of 1807-1808 had located Three Forks as the source of the Missouri River.

(I)-Peter Fidlers's wife, Mary Swampy Cree (1771-1826), at Ille a La Crosse is the only one who knew how to mend and set nets.

Simon Fraser (1776-1862) is assigned to the North West Company's MacKenzie River Department from 1810 to 1814.

Eastman, birth (II)-William Gladman, Metis Sr.(1810-1838) son  (I)-George Gladman (1765-1821) and Mary More (Moar) an Indian woman from Moose Factory (1774-1858).  She is likely a Metis daughter (I)-Thomas Moore of HBC (1763-1778) and Indian woman; sent to England for education 1821, joined HBC (1825-1838) Mingo, Musquaro, Mingan, 
    (III)-Willian Gladman Metis jr. born before 1841
    (III)-George Gladman Metis born before 1841

  Genevieve Grandbois, b-1810 to 1817, Red River des Metis, daughter Michel Grandbois, b-1781, Quebec and and Marguerite Landry; married Louis Bourassa, b-1805.

Red River of the North, birth of Solomon Hamelin, Metis son Jacques Hamelin and Angelique Tourangeau.

(II)-John Hourie Jr., Metis, b-1810 son (I)-John Hourie Sr. b-1779 Orkney married 1809, Margaret Indian b-1787 North West Territories; married Jesse Dennett, b-1815, NWT..

Agatha Le Guthrie, Ojibwa Metis, b-1810 Mackinac, listed Mrs Theophilius Fontaine, wife Theophilius Fontaine and child of Thomas Le Guthie, Ojibwa Metis, b-1781, listed March 28, 1836 treaty. 

Louis Johnson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1810 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as living up Lake Superior.

Fort Hibernia, Swan River District, birth (II)-Mary Kennedy, Metis baptized October 4, 1820 Norway House daughter (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) and, Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) aka Mary Isbister and Bear (1782-1863), Cree Metis: married 1829 Mr. Finlayson.  One of the Finlay clan?  Who were numerous in the early NW as free traders.

(III)-Nancy Kipling, Metis, b-1810/15 Red River des Metis daughter (II)-Jack Ram Kipling, aka John Kipling (1781-1825 and Marguerite Oknese Native (this was his mother, he married Nancy Indian); married 1825 out in the plains, Michel Gravel.

Red River birth Jane Klyne Metis (1810-1879) daughter Michel Klyne b-1781 and Suzanne LaFrance metis; married (I)-Archibald McDonald (1790-1853)

Aitkin L'Amerandeau, Ottawa Metis, b-1810, arrived 1831 Grand River, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Mother is from L'Arbre Croche.

Antoine Laliberte, Metis b-1810 Red River des Metis, a hunter, son Pierre Laliberte b-1776 and Joseohte Gaudry, Metis b-1780; married about 1837 Red River Marguerite Nadeau b-1822 Red River.  1850 census  (Antoine b-1808)  Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Marguerite Lionais dit Delaunay, Metis b-1810 Red River des Metis married Jean Baptiste Letendre dit Batoche, Metis b-1790 Red River.

Sault Ste Marie, birth (II)-Anne Logan, Metis died before 1866, daughter (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) Sault Ste Marie and Mary Saulteaux Indian woman d-1838; married McDonald

(II)-Alexander McDonell, Metis, b-1810? son (I)-Allen McDonnell (1778-1859) and Margaret, a native woman; Alexander joined HBC July 14, 1826.

(II)-Miles MacDonell (1767-1828) is surprised that the Hudson Bay Company has never encouraged its servants to bring their families into the field.  He is also amazed that not a single Cree has adopted the British values, or the British belief in the true deity.

Nancy McGulpin, Ojibwa Metis, b-1810, arrived 1812 Mackinac daughter George McGulpin Sr., Ojibwa Metis, b-1762, Mackinac and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Francois Marion, b-1810, married Angelique Moreau, b-1812.

Jean Baptiste Martel (Martelle?), Metis b-1810 Red River, a hunter married Josephte Godon b-1820 Red River. 

Francois Masson, Metis b-1810 Red River des Metis, a carpenter, married Therese Charron dit Ducharme. Metis b-1810 Red River des Metis.  1850 census.  (Francois b-1800 & Therese b-1812) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Calento Mero, Ojibwa Metis b-1810, arrived 1823 Sault Ste Marie wife of Louis Mero, listed March 28, 1836 treaty. 

Charlotte Nolin, Metis b-1810 Pembina, Red River, married a Parisien

Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) of Montreal is at Mackinac, listed in Hunt overland party..

(II)-William Peebles, Metis b-1810 Albany son (I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) and Ann Native woman, Joined HBC (1832-1844) Albany, William was baptised June 5, 1842 likely Red River but could be Albany River.  
1st married 1842 Albany Mary native/Metis ? bapt 1825 d-1846
    (III)-unnamed Metis daughter bapt 1842
    (III)-Margaret Pebbles Metis bapt 1845
2nd marriage 1849 Red River Catherine Harcus b-1830 daughter David Harcus
    (III)-Catherine Peebles Metis bapt 1850
    (III)-Mary Peebles Metis bapt 1850

(II)-James Peebles, Metis born Albany son (I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) and Native woman, baptized April 18, 1833, likely Red River.

(II)-Charlotte Peebles, Metis born Albany daughter (I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) and Native woman, baptized April 18, 1833, likely Red River.

Baptiste Perrisen (Parisien), Metis b-1810 Red River des Metis, a hunter, married Marie b-1812 Red River des Metis. 

Pierre Poitras b-1810 likely Red River son Andre Poitras (Poitra) (1762/63-1831) and Marguerite Grant, Metis b-1789-1792; married November 27, 1832, St. Boniface Mary Bryere.  Three other children are recorded 2 sons 3 daughters.

(I)-John Pritchard Sr. (1777-1856) employee NWC (1804-1820) married an Indian Woman likely Pine Fort (Manitoba)

(I)-David Ramsay Stewart (Stuart) b-1786, employed HBC (1810-1823) Albant & Moose, married 1810 Albany, (II)-Harriet Vincent, Metis b-1798 daughter (I)-Thomas Vincent and (II)-Jane Renton, Metis (1782-1858) daughter (I)-William Renton (1754-1798) and Indian woman.  (I)-David abandoned his pregnant wife and children went he went back to Scotland 1823.  Some say Harriet was 12 years old when he married her but that is unlikely she was more like age 14 and likely married 1816 which would make her age 18. 
    (II)-Harriet Stewart Metis (1817/18-1910) married Thomas Thomas b-1842
    (II)-Juliet Stewart Metis b-1819/22 married A.O.T. Bennet of York Factory
    (II)-Davis Srewart Metis b-1822/24 was sent to his father by George Gladman Jr. (1800-1863) 

(I)-David Ramsey Stewart (Stuart) b-1786 joined HBC (1810-1823) when he returned to Scotland abandoning his family.
Married 1810 Harriet Vincent b-1798 she was 12 years old
    (II)-Harriet Stewart Metis (1818-1910) married 1842 Thomas Thomas b-1819/20
    (II)-Juliet Stewart b-1822
    (II)-David Stewart b-1824     

(I)-John Tod (1794-1882) joined HBC (1811-1858) York, New Caledonia (1823-1833) then Columbia 
    1st married (1812-1814) York Factory (II)-Catheribne Birstone (Birston) Metis bapt-1824 daughter (I)-Magnus Birston and Indian woman b-1775
        (II)-James Tod Metis (1818-1904)
    2nd marriage (1824-1833) McLeod's Lake New Caledonia,  "the singing girl" likely Sekani
        (II)-unnamed Metis daughter
    3rd marriage 1834 Elizabeth Waugh Metis/Indian d-1857 of Red River who died London
        (II)-Emmeline Jean Tod (1835-1928) married William Henry Newton
    4th marriage 1863 Sophia (Martha) Loto (1826-1883) of Thompson's River likely daughter of Jean Baptiste Lolo, then had Seven children
     (II)-Mary Tod Metis b-1843
        (II)-Isaac Tod Metis b-1849
     (II)-Elizabeth Tod Metis b-1856 
        (II)-John Tod Metis b-1845
        (II)-Alex Tod Metis b-1847
        (II)-William Tod Metis (1853-1881) 
        (II)-Simeon/Tim Tod Metis b-1859

Jane Tchinouk-Quinault (1810-1855) daughter Chinook and Quinault ; married James Johnson, a Scot sailor who moved his family from Fort Vancouver to Baker's Bay in late 1840's.

Dakota, birth Antoine Renville Metis son Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow); 1st married Elizabeth and 2nd marriage Madeline.  

Francois Ressard Richard, Metis, (1810-1872) son Francois Richard (1770-1871) and Marguerite Indian b-1788, most likely North West.

Oxford House, birth (II)-Thomas Sinclair, Metis (1810-1870) son  (I)-William Sinclair, Orkney (1766-1818) employed HBC (1782-1818) and Margaret Nahoway Cree or Metis; married 1st. (II)-Hannah Cummings, Metis (1812-1846) likely daughter (I)-Cuthbert Cumming (1787-1870) and Susette Indian Girl; married 2nd Caroline Pruden (1830-1908)

(I)-David Ramsay Stewart (Stuart) b-1786 Scotland, joined HBC (1810-1823) Albany, Moose; married Harriet Vincent Metis when she was 12 years old, she and her children were abandoned even when she was pregnant, a most despicable man.. 
    (II)-Harriet Stewart Metis b-1818 Moose Factory, d-1910, married 1842 Thomas Thomas
    (II)-Juliet Stewart Metis b-1822 Moose Factory
    (II)-David Stewart Metis b-1824 Moose Factory

(II)-James Tait Metis b-1810 York District, joined HBC (1820-1829) retired Red River, married Indian woman
    (III)-Jane Tait Metis bapt 1830
    (III)-Joseph Tait Metis bapt 1830
    (III)-James Tait Metis bapt 1834
    (III)-Nancy Tait Metis bapt 1835
    (III)-John Tait Metis bapt 1838
    (III)-Mary Tait Metis bapt 1840

Paradise, Montana, birth, Joseph Rivet, Metis, son Francois Rivet b-1754 Quebec d-1852 and Theresa Tete Platte a Flathead Indian.

Catherine St. Onge, Ojibwa Metis, b-1810, arrived 1827 Mackinac, wife of Lewis St. Onge, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Her relatives are of Saint Marie Indians.

George aka John Spence, married, 1810, Catherine Cree.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the North West Company is conducting trade at Saleesh House near Thompson Falls, Montana with the Nez Perce on March 11.

Jean Baptiste Vallee, Metis b-1810 Red River des Metis, a hunter, married Marie Kipling b-1819 Red River.

Therese Villebrun, Metis b-1810 Red River des Metis married Louis Laverdure b-1814 Pembina, a hunter.

(II)-William Gladman Metis (1810-1838) born Eastman son (I)-George Gladman (1765-1821) and (II)-Mary Moore (1774-1858) Metis daughter (I)-Thomas Moore; joined HBC 1821-1838) Musquaro; wife not recorded
    (III)-William Gladman Metis Jr.
    (III)-George Gladman Netis.

Emilie Wells, b-1810, N.W. daughter John Wells, b-1788, England and Josephate Grant, Metis, b-1785;  married Alexander Breland (1803-1858), Metis son Pierre Breland (1760-1829) and Louise Belly, Indian.

Joseph Boisvert and Bazile David rejoined the North West Company and is with Alexander Henry the Younger (1764-1814) on the upper Saskatchewan River,

Forty three births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement this year.  The cause of this large influx of pregnant women into the Settlement is not known.  It would appear that the women and children were not as actively engaged in the bison (buffalo) hunts.  Its possible that the bison (buffalo) herds were close to the Red River colony this season.

Red River des Metis, birth Pierre Bottineau, Metis b-1810/17 famous guide and interpreter died 1895 Red Falls, Minnesota son Charles Bottineau and Margaret Clear Sky an Ojibwa Woman (Chippewa).  He married Red River Genevieve Laurence born 1818 Minnesota and had 8 Metis children; Daniel, Jean, Pierre, Genevieve, Rosalie, Marguerite, Leon, and Elsie.  He had a 2nd marriage in Little Canada, Minnesota to Martha Gervais, daughter Louis Pierre Gervais of Champlain N.Y.; they had 10 more children; Charles, Mathilde, Henry, George, William, Norman, Laura, Jennie, Agnes and Noah.  Pierre is noted at Fort Snelling 1837, Frazer River 1859 with Nobles, Idaho 1863 with Fisk, Missouri River 1862 with Sibley.  Some confusion exists concerning Pierre's birth 1810/16/1817 Red River vs. Dakota Territory.  It is also suggested that he grew up with his mother's people- the Ojibwa.

Madame Madaline Laframboise dit Marcotte, a Metis (1780-1846) fur trader, upon the death of her husband, obtain her own trading permit and made her servant, Genevieve Maranda, in charge of her home in Mackinac when she wintered in the interior or transported her furs to Montreal.

Duncan Campbell born 1802 who married a Dakota woman, wintered until 1810 on the Mississippi River with Michel Cadotte then joined the American Fur Company, working for James Lockwood at Prairie du Chein.

Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845)  lived in Carrier Country from 1810 to1819 and married a native woman.  Harmon noted that the Carrier People had a Miuties (chief), but he had no authority or influence over the community.  It is noteworthy that an English clergyman rewrote parts of Harmon's journals to portray the natives as ignorant savages, which was more in line with Christian thinking at this time.

Joseph Nadeau, Metis b-1810 N.W.T. married Susanne Bourdon b-1813.) Genealogy First Metis Nation  or (Joseph Nedeau (Nadeau), Metis  b-1807 Red River, voyager married about 1831 Red River, Susanna b-1808 Pembina.  1850 census. 

Charles Shibous, Metis b-1810 Red River des Metis, an Indian trader, married about 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin, or Red Lake?  Josette b-1819 Missouri River.

The population of Michigan Territory is 4,528.  (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1797-1818) is offered the job as Indian storekeeper, replacing the suspended Askin.  Lt. Francis Gore wrote to Sir James Craig on February 26, 1810, that the dissipated habits and extreme intemperance of the interpreter, Cadotte, render him unfit for trust, as during his stay in York, he was almost in a continual state of intoxication.  Captain Dawson, however, wrote April 21, 1810, praising Cadotte in a letter to Gore.  Cadotte took charge of the stores.  He is still drawing severance pay from the North West Company.

J.D. Cameron, an Ojibwa Metis, pioneered Anglican works at Sault Ste Marie, embracing Christianity after being convinced that the earth is round.  He later converted to Baptist and worked Lake Superior for 25 years.

The Orkneymen of the Hudson Bay Company organized a form of labor union to prevent the Company from hiring the number of men it wanted, in order to force them to raise their wages.  The Hudson Bay Company believed that the North West Company is conspiring, by malicious tricks, to discredit its service in order to prevent it from getting its annual supply of useful hands.

The British Hudson Bay Company, as a result of declining dividends, reorganized and eliminated the London Standard, allowing more local autonomy and profit sharing.  The Official Company Bulletin proclaimed, "No more men from Orkney to be sent out to America, but men from the Western Islands and Coast of Scotland where the people are of a more spirited race than the Orkney."  The truth of the matter was that the Orkney had little respect for the English and openly held them in contempt.  The Hudson Bay Company sent agents to Glasgow, the Hebribes and to Montreal to recruit servants.  The first of the non Orkney servants to arrive are an Irishman and three Highlanders from Stornoway.  They are maliciously treated by the Orkney, being considered as a break in contract.  Many Orkney refused to renew their contracts, as they felt the Company betrayed their confidence.

British military regulations at this time only allowed six women and their families per company of soldiers at British forts.

William William's became Governor in Chief of the British Hudson Bay Company because of his sheer love of violence and lack of subtlety.  The English were obviously expecting problems in the Territories.  There was even talk of employing those French Metis, and establishing a retirement colony at Red River for those Orkneys and English half-breed  (Metis) families with no desire to return to Britain.

The Hudson Bay Company finally accepted some responsibility for the country children.  They had ignored reality for so long that they had no terms for these new Canadians.  The would eventually adopt the French terms for these country born peoples, including the derogative term- half-breed  (Metis) .  Over two hundred years of British Metis ancestors were denied their rightful place in history.  They were never allowed to become an ethnic/racial entity.  It was not until they merged with the already established Red River Metis establishment that they were offered an alternative.  The British/Indian descendents as Metis only begins about this time.  It did not take long for the British Metis to blend into the French Metis culture.  As a result, the modern Metis went through a cultural transition.  Some diversionists, even to this day, attempt to divide the Metis people with meaningless distinctions.      

The Hudson Bay Company finally realized that its dependency on England for food was too costly.  The Decision was made to procure food supplies from the Prairies; mostly bison (buffalo), but other Metis and Indian produce likely entered the trade.

(I)-Thomas Thomas, alias John George Thomas of Vaudreuil, is Superintendent of southern factories: Moose, Albany and Eastman, as well as master of Severn House, last year and this year.  This (I)-Thomas Thomas,  born 1766 (not to be confused with (I)-Thomas Thomas born 1781 and arrived 1794 who is also an ancestor of Garneau), arrived in the Hudson Bay Territories in 1789, being the first Canadian ancestor of (IV)-Eleanor Thomas.  He would eventually marry into the Garneau clan.  

This year witnessed the first Fort Carlton, and the Metis Rebellion of 1885 would destroy the last Fort Carlton.  Actually, this is the third fort built on the Saskatchewan River near Duck Lake, and is called Carlton House but later renamed Fort Carlton.  The original known Forts were built in 1795 and 1804. 

Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845)  reports that nine bushels of potatoes planted yield 150 bushels of potatoes.

Andrew Henry, (1775-1833) built a Fort near St. Anthony, Idaho (Oregon Territory).  In this party is Archibald Pelton, b-1791 Connecticut and Thomas James was in the group..

Andrew Henry (1775-1833) and Manuel Lisa (1772-1820) established a fort on Clark's Fork, a tributary of the Snake River, west of the Continental Divide.

Jean Bilone Dumont born 1810 Red River des Metis Settlement living St. Norbert, Red River 1870 census.

Some place this as the year the Pembina Chippewa Metis (Bungi) move from the Red River to the Turtle Mountains to create a settlement.

(II)-Jacco (Jacques) Raphael Finlay (Metis) (1768-1828), and Partner (II)-Finan (Finnan) McDonald (1782-1851) establish Spokane House for the N.W.C. on the Spokane River, a short distance from its confluence with the Columbia.  This house supported the Metis free traders of the region.  Finlay and McDonald settled down to raise their Metis families near the Trading Post.

Jedidiah Morse of the H.B.C. wrote that New South Wales is a country of vast extent, of which little is known,  lying round the southern part of Hudson Bay.  The Hudson Bay Company had occupied the shores since 1683, but seldom strayed from its coast.  This is incredible and speaks volumes of the English inability to explore.

The Missouri Fur Company built Fort Henry near St. Anthony, Idaho.

Captain Jonathan Thorne sailed with four Pacific Fur Company partners and nine clerks for the Columbia River, Oregon Territory.  W.P. Hunt and Donald Mackenzie headed overland with over 70 men from St. Louis, Missouri.  

March 11:  Saleesh House, Thompson Falls, Montana, David Thompson traded 20 guns to the Nez Perce.  The Nez Perce and the Flatheads used the guns in a battle with a group of Piegans in the Montana plains.

April 12:  Eastman District, birth (II)-Elizabeth Hawthorn, Metis daughter (I)-Hamlett Henry Hawthorn d-1782, employee HBC (1803-1812) and (II)-Elizabeth Bolland, Metis (1757-1810), during childbirth:  Hamlett returned to London 1812 with one Metis daughter, likely Mary.

April 24:   Prairie De Chien, birth Elizabeth Therese Baird died November 5, 1890 daughter Henry Munro Fisher (American Fur Company) and Marienne Lasaliere Metis daughter Pierre Lasaliere and Therese Schindler (also married George Schindler); Elizabeth married 1824 Mackinac Henry S Bird (1800-1876).

May 4:  North West, birth John Brown, Metis, son Joseph Brown, b-1787 and Elizabeth Metis; married Nancy Richard, born June, 1820 N.W. daughter Thomas Richard and Margaret.

June 13:  The Mackinac Fur Company conducted its last business as a Company and the business carried on by independent traders and this must have frustrated the American Government who wanted to take control of the Mackinac Fur Company.

June 23:   The Pacific Fur Company is registered in New York by (I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) a German .  His partners included ex-Nor'Westers: Alexander McKay, Donald McKenzie and Duncan McDougall.   (I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) the German had such an influence in the Michilimackinac trade that the North West Company was forced into partnership with him in the Southwest Fur Company.   The notary book of Samuel Abbott, Mackinac Island (1807-1817) tells a different story.  The trade was fractured among many ex NWC/HBC men including the southern district of the Mississippi.  Ramsay Crooks, Louis Gregnon, (III)-George Ermatinger (1770/80-1841), Jacques Portier, James Avid and E. Lamorandiere started to pull the southern Department under their control in 1817.

July:  (I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848)  German, led a sixty man expedition to the Pacific Northwest coast.  The expedition leadership included Wilson Price Hunt (1783-1842), Donald McKenzie and Ramsay Cooksand.  The expedition dwindled to 34 after wintering on the Missouri river above St. Louis.  They engaged Pierre Diron as guide who took his pregnant wife and two Metis children on the expedition.

July 6:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Francois Xavier Cadotte and (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Metis (1761-1818) to winter Lac Flambeau Southeast of La Pointe, Wisconsin.

July 10:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged (IV)-Michel Cadotte Metis (1764-1837) to winter River Court Oreille a La Pointe.

July 10:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Alexis LaValle to winter La Pointe.

July 12:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Michel Cadotte sent Guilliaume Lalonde to Lake Superior.

July 13:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Michel Cadotte sent Souverain Danie to Lake Superior.

July 17:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that (IV)-Michel Cadotte Metis (1764-1837) sent (I)-Benjamin Cadotte Metis b-1785, Elie Rather, Francois Beaucheman and Michel Girard to a la Folle Avoine (Wisconsin).

July 21:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean Baptiste Lemoine sent Louis Montreuil, Michel Ellie, Louis Proudome, Pierre Longlin and Charles Labarge to Missouri River.

June 22:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Michel Goursolle sent Michel Girard to the Grand River.

July 23:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean Baptiste Lemoine sent Jean Baptiste Lesage to Missouri River.

July 24:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean Baptiste Lemoine sent Pierre Morin  to Missouri River.

July 27:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Pierre Grignon engaged a party to Ouisconsin.

July 30:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean Baptiste Lemoine sent Joseph Labott to Missouri River.

July 30:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Lewis Crawford sent Francis Ladouceur to Lake Superior.

July 31:   Lewis Crawford sent Francis LaDowceur to Lake Superior.

August 1: Mackinac  Charles Boucher joined the Pacific Fur Company with W.P. Hunt expedition Montreal June 5, 1810 to the west.  By August 1, 1810 they were at Mackinac and arrived Pacific coast at Fort Astoria February 19, 1812.  He joined NWC 1813 assigned to Spokane House.

August 7:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Charles Bellaire sent Joseph Galerneau to Missouri River.

August 11:   Lewis Crawford sent Antoine Turette to Lake Superior.

August 20:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jacques Portier sent Jean Baptiste Gendbeau to the Mississippi River.

September 16:  The Mexican war of Independence began and was completed 1821.  

December 30:  Marie the wife of Pierre Diron, guide for the (I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) a German/American expedition to the Pacific Northwest gave birth to her third child.  The next day she was back on her horse heading west.




(I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) a German, of the American Fur Company claimed to have established Astoria, Oregon this year.

Charlotte Atkinson, Metis b-1811, Red River des Metis, daughter George Atkinson, b-1770 and a woman named Margaret; married, 1853, Fort Lacorne, Saskatchewan, Charles Fidler, b-1830, Red River.  This is obviously in error, look at the age difference, unless 1830 is baptism date then it's likely (II)-Charles Fidler b-1798 Cumberland House and he married a Metis or Indian girl?

The following is very odd, they all joined NWC same year and didn't appear to like HBC, likely all related;
Basil Belanger NWC (1811-1821) Michipiceton a freeman (1815-1821) 
Joseph Belanger NWC (1811-1821) English River, HBC (1821) Cumberland house to Montreal 1822
Louis Belanger NWC (1811-1821) Fort de Prairies, Saskatchewan District, HBC 1821 Fort de Prairies a freeman 1821 
Two more may or may not be related;
Pierre Belanger NWC (1805-1819) Lac Nipigon, Lac des Isles, HBC (1821-1822) Lac des Isles, lsland lake then on to Montreal 1822.  He could be canoeman Athabasca (1786-1788) or on the Saskatchewan as a freeman (1856-1866)???
Jean Baptiste Belanger NWC (1816-1829) English River, then on to the Franklin expedition 

Joseph Belcour of the North West Company is working the Athabasca River.

York Facrory, birth (III)-Magnus Birston, Metis b-1815 or (1811-1875) son (II)-Alexander Birston, Metis (1774-1829) and Indian woman died before 1821; married March 3, 1830 Nancy Lyons, daughter John Lyons and Margaret Kipling.; daughter 
    (IV)-Nancy Birston, Metis, baptised March 26, 1833..

Baptiste Bouche, interpreter, takes the daughter of the Carrier Chief as a wife.

Susan Bousha, Ojibwa Metis, b-1811 St. Ignace, daughter Pierre Bousha, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  A relation to the chief Aintz. 

Saskatchewan River Valley, birth Pascal Breland Metis son Pierre du Boishue dit Breland (1760-1829) a free trader and Louise (Josphte) Belly (Belley); Pascal would marry Maria Grant Metis daughter Cuthbert Grant.

(I)-Alexander Bremner aka Brimner, Bremmer, (1795-1842) from Caithbess, Scotland, employed HBC (1812-1832) country married about 1820, Swan River, churched May 1, 1833 Red River, (II)-Elizabeth (Betsy) Twatt, Metis daughter (I)-Magnus Twatt (1751-1801 and Margaret Indian.
                RECORDED CHILDREN
        (II)-John Bremner, Metis
        (II)-Sarah Bremner, Metis
        (II)-William Bremner, Metis
        (II)-Thomas Bremner, Metis (1825-1853) born Swan River
        (II)-Betsy Bremner, Metis 
        (II)-Nancy Bremner, Metis
        (II)-James Bremner, Metis
        All above children baptized White Horse Plains, just west of Red River, April 14, 1833
        (II)-Mary Bremner, Metis, baptized August 22, 1841
        (II)-Peter Bremner, Metis baptized November 13, 1842
        (II)-Charles Bremner, Metis b-1838, baptized by a Catholic priest, then by an Anglican clergyman April 24, 1853 

Jean Baptiste Champlain of the Missouri Fur Company and 23 men departed Fort Raymond on the Yellowstone River in Montana for Santa Fe, New Mexico.  Only 4 men reached Santa Fe.  Champlain vanished among the Arapaho along the upper Arkansas River in central Colorado.  Ezekiel Williams turned up safe in 1813 having gotten lost on the Arkansas River.  To keep things in perspective last century Indians from this region walked down to Texas to steal horses from the Mexicans. 

Jean Baptiste Chaurette joined NWC (1811-1821) Red River and HBC (1821-1824) Red River.

(II)-Robert Chilton Jr. Metis (1796-1863) employed HBC (1811-1863) son (I)-Robert Chilton Sr. and Indian Woman;  married an Indian or Metis woman had two daughters and possibly two sons, 
    (III)-Robert Chilton Metis b-1823
    (III)-Alexander Thomas Chilton, Metis 
    (III)-Richard Chilton, Metis, b-1800 (these two sons could be Roberts brothers)

(I)-Alexander Christie (1783-1872) employed HBC (1809-1849)  at Moose, married likely 1811 (II)-Nancy (Ann) Thomas, Metis, b-1796 daughter (I)-John George Thomas (1751-1822 other suggest aka Thomas Thomas and Meenish ?(Neenish) b-1781 epouse Richard Steven;   three children are recorded: 
    (II)-Alexander Christie, Metis, b-1818 Rupert's River
    (II)-William Joseph Christie, Metis, (1824-1899)
    (II)-Margaret Christie, Metis who married John Black (1817-1879)

Etienne dit Gilbert Comptois b-1780 Quebec, likely brother Francois Comptois dit Gilbert, employed South West Fur Company at Fond du Lac just south of Green Bay, Wisconsin (1811-1814) and employed NWC (1814-1820) same location, HBC (1821-1825) Athabasca District & McKenzie River District.  he married Indian or Metis girl while here and had three Metis sons and three Metis girls.  He settled Red River and in 1831 census at Red River with 3 sons under 16 and 3 daughters under 15, but one son was over 16 in 1833, 

(I)-Patrick Corcoran aka Cochrane, and Cochran, b-1787 Ireland, came to York Factory as a Red River Settler (1811-1812), found his way to Montreal, joined HBC, traveled to Athabasca (1819-1822) worked Fort Wedderburn, Athabasca District (1820-1822).  Brother (I)-John Corcoran d-1827, (I)-Thomas Corcoran (1794-1865), (I)-Richard Corcoran, (I)-Edward Corcoran.  Married by 1826, Rawdon, no name given for wife and child.

Michel Cotenoir Sr. aka Cottenoire, Cotenour, Cotmoir and Cognoir (1790/91-1851) from Yamaska, Quebec joined NWC (1811-1821) worked (1811-1813) Fort William, wintered (1813-1814) Willamette Columbia District, HBC (1821-1837) Columbia District, settled Cowlitz (1837-1842)  Cottenoire had two wives and five children. 
He appears to have married a Chehalis native woman, ( Tchialis aka Tchinouk Woman). by whom he had 
    Michel Cottenoire Jr. Metis (1820-1854), son of a Tchinouk woman was bapt 1840, married 1842 Sophie Plamondon Metis daughter Simon Plamondon (1796/1800-1900) & Victoria Scanewa (Thas-e-muth) a Cowlitz 
    Lisette Cottenoire Metis b-1821/22 of a Tchialis woman, married 1839 Pierre Laplante dit Badillac
after her death, he united with Marie Ketse’ b-1818 bapt 1840, on September 13, 1835 which was formalized on April 8, 1839. Together they had three children, 
    Edouard Cottenoire Metis b-1831/32,  mother was a woman of the country, bapt 1838
    David Cottenoire Metis b-1836/37, mother was a woman of the country, bapt 1838
    Marie Cottenoire Metis b-1840

Louis Davis, Ojibwa Metis, b-1811, arrived 1828 Grand River, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Proved he had a relationship with Ojibwa Indians.

Saskatchewan District, birth, (II)-Elizabeth Dunnet, Metis , baptized July 17, 1827 Red River daughter (I)-William Dunnet aka Dunnett, Dennet (1780-1864) employed HBC (1796-1821) and (II)-Sophia Ballendine, Metis, b-1791: married John Slater.

Joseph Duvernay, Ojibwa Metis, b-1811 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descended from Lac du Flambeau Indians.   

Joseph Flamant aka Flammand, Metis born 1792/1794 Hudson Bay employed HBC (1811-1833) IIe-a-la Crosse, English river and married 1834 Margurerite Moreau Metis b-1797 NWT and had two boys and 1 girl by 1822/23..

Mrs Henry G. Gravereat Metis, b-1811 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as received script at treaty of Chicago. 

Louis Grondin is likely a Louis from Grondine, Quebec, joined NWC before 1811 to 1821 English River Department and HBC (1821-1822) retiring to Montreal in 1822.

Joseph Huppe Sr b-1788 joined NWC (1811-1821) Red River, married Marguerite Marcellais Metis b-1793
    Joseph Huppe Jr. Metis b-1816/18 Red River joined HBC (1835-1838) Red River
    Isadore (Izadore)Huppe Metis b-1845 Red River joined HBC (1869-1870) Athabasca

Charlotte Jerioux, Ottawa Metis, b-1806, arrived 1811 Sault Ste Marie, daughter, Jerioux a British Officer and Ottawa Metis woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Cindy Leutz believes its possible Charlotte is Charlotte Spenard who married Pierre Giroux on Drummond Island 1826 and is the mother of Pierre Giroux Jr. who married Marie Louise St. Onge dit Letarde.  Joseph Gorneau in 1854 mixed blood treaty says Charlotte Giroux is his cousin?

Kiakik (Keyackie) Finley, Metis, born 1811 Spokane, Washington son (II)-Old Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis,  b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821).

Jacques Lafantaise, interpreter, arrived Astoria this year, and married 1818, Susanne Okanogan (1800-1849)

Pierre Lavallee, Metis, b-1811 likely English River or Red River des Metis, son Ignace Lavalle (1760-1836) and Josephte Cree b-1786.

Eusebe Ledoux, Metis, b-1811 son Pierre aka Baptiste Ledoux, b-1773 and Madeleine Sauteuse, b-1785; married Suzanne Bonneau, Metis b-1814 daughter Jean Baptiste Bonneau, b-1752 and Louise Native, b-1760.

Sault Ste Marie, birth (II)-Elizabeth Logan, Metis, b-1811 daughter (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) Sault Ste Marie and Mary Saulteaux Indian woman d-1838; married (II)-William Sutherland Metis son (I)-James Sutherland (1768/72-1806) 

Rosalie Louisignan, Ottawa Metis, b-1811, Detroit daughter, Francis Louisignon, and Rosalie Ottawa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Lives in Detroit.

(I)-Roderick McKenzie Jr. aka the younger, (1791-1830) joined HBC (1811-1830) married March 20, 1823 Fort Alexander. (II)-Sally Sutherland Metis (1777-1827) daughter (I)-James Sutherland (1751-1797) and Indian Woman .  Four children are recorded:
    (II)-Annabella (Arabella) McKenzie Metis b-1818 baptised 1821 married 1832 John Clarke Spense
    (II)-Margaret McKenzie Metis (1821-1834)
    (II)-Jesse McKenzie Metis b-1824
    (II)-Jemima McKenzie Metis b-1826
* one of these women married Red River William Ross and the other was married by 1852.

(I)-Donald McPherson d-1819 Albany, employed HBC (1811-1819) he married Charlotte Sutherland Metis, died July 30, 1854 Albany epouse (I)-Thomas Corcoran (1792/94-1865). Daughter (I)-John Sutherland & Indian
    (II)-John McPherson, Metis, b-1816/17, sent to England 1829, employed HBC (1830-1845): 

Louis Majeau b-1789 was employed NWC (1811-1821) at Athanasca, Cumberland House and English River then with HBC (1821-1826) at Isle la Crosse and English River.

Birth, Spokane, (III)-Helene McDonald, Metis, (1811-1863), daughter (II)-Finan McDonald (1782-1851) and Marguerite Pend d'Oreille; 1st married William Kitson, d-1841 and was with him 1839 at Fort Nisqually; 2nd married Richard Grant HBC trader, they moved to Montana.   A son named James is also noted.

(II)-Sophia McDonell, Metis, (1811-1835) daughter (I)-Allen McDonnell (1778-1859) and Margaret, a native woman; married December 18, 1834 John Livingstone

(I)-Roderick McKenzie the younger (1791-1830) joined HBC (1811-1830) assigned Red River (1811-1813), assigned Athabasca (1813-1818); assigned Lac La Plue 1819-1822) and various NW posts.  Married 1823 Fort Alexander (II)-Sally Sutherland Metis bapt 1821 d-1827 daughter (I)-James Sutherland (1778-1844) and Ondian girl.   
    (II)-Annabella (Arbella) McKenzie Metis b-1818 bapt 1821 married 1832 (II)-John Clarke Spence Metis son (I)-Joseph Spence and Northern Indian Woman
        (III)-James Spence Metis bapt 1833
        (III)-Amelia Spence Metis bapt 1835
        (III)-Jessy Spence Metis bapt 1837
    (II)-Margaret McKenzie Metis (1821-1834)
    (II)-Jessie McKenzie Metis b-1824*
    (II)-Jemima McKenzie Metis b-1826*
* one married Red River William Ross the other married 1852

Donald McIntosh Sr. Metis (1773-1845) he speaks Saulteaux (HBC said this qualifies him to cheat an Indian but he is honest) and therefore could be Metis he joined the NWC and is posted (1811-1821) Michipicoten, Lake Superior District.  Employed HBC (1821-1840) in Lake Superior District.  He married Charlotte, likely a native or Metis and had six known children 
    Donald McIntosh Jr. Metis
    John McIntosh Metis (1803-1844)*
    Mary McIntosh Metis 
    Catherine McIntosh Metis  
    Duncan McIntosh Metis  
    ArchibaldMcIntosh Metis b-1834 (HBC (1846-1853) Columbia District (More likely son *)

(I)-Robert McKay (1774-1853) joined HBC (1811-1816) married 1815 York Factory (I)-Christian Bannerman b-1793, settled Red River

Donald McKenzie a 300 lb trader for the Pacific Fur Company established a trading post on the north side of the Clearwater River 5 miles above Lewiston.  McKenzie and company were hi-handed and demanding towards the natives and the Nez Perce refused to trap beaver.  The said they would trade horses, food or clothing but not furs.  McKenzie had to shut the post down and travel on to the Pacific. 

Alexander Mackenzie, of the North West Company wrote, it has been found that colonization is at all times unfavorable to the fur trade.  This is likely sparked because the Metis Colony of Red River were mostly free-traders.

Louis Montrielle, Ojibwa Metis, b-1811 St. Ignace son Montridle a Frenchman and mother a pure squaw (iskwao) (Ojibwa Woman).  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

Red River birth (II)-John Norquay Metis (1811-1849) son (I)-Oman Norquay (1773-1820) and (II)-Jean Morwick Metis; joined HBC (1833-1838) Norway House 
1st married 1832 Isabella Truithwaite (1818-1843) daughter (II)-Jacob TruthwaiteMetis b-1790 and Elizabeth Vincent 
    (III)-Jacob Norquay Metis bapt 1833, d-1834
    (III)-Jane Norquay Metis bapt 1836   
    (III)-Emma Norquay Metis bapt 1838 d-1843
    (III)-Mary Anne Norquay Metis bapt 1839
    (III)-John Norquay Metis bapt 1841
    (III)-Thomas Norquay Metis bapt 1843   
2nd marriage 1845 Nancy Ward
    (III)-Nancy Norquay Metis bapt 1846
    (III)-Louttit Norquay Metis bapt 1848

Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) is employed NWC (1811-1821) in Columbia District.

Wilson Phunt of the Pacific Fur Company explored the Snake River Valley and Boise Valley, Idaho.

(I)-Andrew Stewart (1789-1822) Scotland, employed HBC (1811-1822) married 1811 Moose Factory,  (II)-Frances (Fanny) Thomas, Metis, b-1796 daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822)
    (II)-Robert Frederick Stewart Metis b-1813 sent to Scotland 1821 for education
    (II)-John Robertson Srewart Metis (1821-1889) married 1851 Sarah White (1820-1895)
        (III)-Helen Frances Stewart Metis (1857-1879)
        (III)-Satah Maria Stewart Metis (1860-1898) married William Kelway
        (III)-Mary Stewart Metis  b-1861 married David Todd
        (III)-Louisa Robertson Stewart Metis (1866-1876)

St. Louis, Missouri, marriage Louis Resson son Louis Tesson Honore; married 1st. Marie Duchouquette, 2nd marriage 1788 St. Louis Therese Creely, 3rd marriage 1797 St. Louis Catherine Rivet, 4th marriage 1811, St. Louis, Missouri.

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Julie Hudon (about 1811-1903+) Metis daughter  Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838)  and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Charles H. Oakes.  

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Clement H. Hudon (1811-1893) Metis son  Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838)  and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Elizabeth Farling.   Clement's sister Gustave Hudson birth year unknown married Charles W. Borup.  Hypolite Hudson birth also not known

Green Bay, marriage (IV)-Pierre Antoine (Fanfan) Grignon, Metis (1777- 1823) Green Bay (son espouse) as baptized August 6, 1787 Mackinac, son (II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago; married 1st 1801 Charlotte Pemonica, 2nd 1811 Marie Chellefoux. 

Red River, birth (IV)-Frederick William Ermatinger Metis (1811-1869) son (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. 

Gabriel Franchere, at Astoria, Oregon from 1811 to1824, says that the Indians of the upper Columbia River are always on horseback and go to the Missouri River for the annual bison (buffalo) hunt.

Pierre Dorion, Metis (1780/82-1814), journeyed west with an expedition led by Wilson P. Hunt of the American Fur Company that journeyed up the Missouri River with 80 men for the Pacific..

Archibald Pelton, a Massachusetts teenager, survived a Blackfoot attack that destroyed the expedition he was with.  The Nez Perce found him wandering about in southern Idaho and took him in.  A short time later Donald McKenzie with his ragged and starving group of 11 members of the Astor Expedition are saved by the same Nez Perce band and Pelton was re-united with his people.

Pine Fort (Manitoba), birth, (II)-John Pritchard Jr., Metis son (I)-John Pritchard Sr. (1777-1856) employee NWC (1804-1820) married an Indian Woman: married Jennet

Moose River, birth (II)-John Spence, Metis son (I)-Peter Spence (1777-1855) and (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis, (1788-1843)

David Stewart of the Pacific Fur Company wintered at Cume-loups (Kamloops) 'meeting of the waters' and established a trading post.

(I)-Andrew Stewart (1789-1822) joined HBC (1811-1822) Moose and Albany, married (II)-Frances (Fanny) Thomas Metis b-1796 daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-11822) and Margaret Indian d-1813,
    (II)-Robert (Fredrick) Stewart Metis b-1813 sent to school in Scotland 1821
    (II)-John Robertson Stewart Metis (1821-1889) married 1851 to Sarah White (1820/22-1895)
        (III)-Helen Frances Stewart Metis (1857-1879)
        (III)-Sarah Maria Stewart Metis (1860-1898) married William Kelway
        (III)-Mary Stewart Metis b-1861 married David Todd
        (III)-Louisa Robertson Stewart Metis (1866-1876)    

(I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney and Chief Factor, retired but no mention is made of his Indian wife and family.

Fort Augustus (Edmonton), birth (II)-Joshuah Thompson Metis son (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and Charlotte Small b-1785 Metis.

Douglas appointed Miles MacDonell (1767-1828) as Governor of the Assiniboia. 

(I)-George Robertson (Robinson) (1771-1855) employed HBC (1791-1815) mostly York, retired Red River.  He married Nancy or Anne an Indian Woman who was baptized 1829, about 1811 when he was running the Winnipeg River and wintering in Red River.


    (II)-Catherine Robertson Metis baptized December 9, 1825, 

    (II)-George Robertson Metis baptized April 7, 1828, 

     (II)-Andrew Robertson Metis baptized April 7, 1828, 

      (II)-Peter Robertson Metis baptized April 7, 1828, 

      (II)-Robert Robertson Metis baptized April 7, 1828, 

      (II)-Sarah Robertson Metis baptized April 7, 1828, 

      (II)-Thomas Robertson Metis baptized April 7, 1828, 

    1827 cencus says 1 son over 16, 4 sons under 16, 1 daughter over 15 and 1 daughter under 15

     (II)-James Robertson Metis baptized April 9, 1828, 

     (II)-John Robertson Metis baptized April 9, 1828, 

     (II)-William Robertson Metis baptized July 19, 1831, 

     (II)-Margaret Robertson Metis baptized October 28, 1834, as an adult 

Edward Rose aka Cut Nose and Five Scalps, a Metis is living with the Arikree Indians on the Missouri when the Wilson Price Hunt expedition hired him as guide and interpreter to the Columbia Basin.

Michel Cadotte is born 1811 Red River des Metis Settlement and will marry Nancy Cochrane also born 1820 Red River Settlement.  Catherine Henry born 1811 Red River des Metis Settlement daughter Alexander Henry (1764-1814), living Red River 1870 census.

Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Michel Cadotte engaged Guillaume LaLonde and Sauverain to Lake Superior.

The Hudson Bay records indicate that two calves are shipped by boat inland from York Factory where they are born.  This is believed to be the first record of the cattle industry in the prairies.

Jean Baptiste Grauier is listed in Montreal as a very old trader.

The winter of 1810-11 is the most severe in memory.  The Red River flooded and at the Assiniboine junction, the waters rose fifty feet above the normal five foot flood level.  The spread is a width of eight miles instead of the normal eighty to one hundred yards.  The settlements and crops along the river are destroyed.  Churchill and York report a severe shortage of provisions.  A request is sent to Bas de la River (Winnipeg) and Red River Settlement for pemmican. 

A winter squabble broke out among the Irish and Scotch settlers at the Hudson Bay Company. Nine men from Glasgow and four from Orkney refused to submit to Hudson Bay Company authority.

A.S. Morton says that the Earl of Selkirk is to set apart one tenth of the District for the settlement for retiring servants with their squaws (iskwao) and their dusky families.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

Alexander Henry (1764-1814), the younger, at Rocky Mountain House on the Saskatchewan, says the Gros Ventre this year are offering their women to the men at the post for a night or two. 

Jacques Cardinal (Cardinel)  Sr. of St. Genevieve, Quebec went to Fort des Prairies for the North West Company. 

It is reported that the Earl of Selkirk has obtained a controlling interest in the Hudson Bay Company.  The British, for ten shillings, sell one hundred and sixteen thousand square miles of Canada; an area five times the size of Scotland, despite the objections of Alexander MacKenzie and other Canadian partners who were trying to buy up British Hudson Bay Company stock to block the sale.  The area is called the Assiniboine and includes the Red River to Thomas Douglas (1771-1820).  The selling price is a token price, as the British did not believe they had the right to sell the land either by authority or occupation.  The transaction, however, is beneficial, as they could put the ignorant, zealous, do goodie, Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) between them and the Canadians- as they called them.  If the venture turns sour, the British Hudson Bay Company is clean to try another alternative.  This is a win-win scenario, consistent with the best British tradition of getting someone else to do your dirty work.  As part of the deal, it is agreed that the Selkirk Settlement is to provide 200 servants per year for ten years to the Hudson Bay Company.

Thomas Douglas (1771-1820), son of Dunbar Douglas and Helen Hamilton, had also established Baldoon in Upper Canada and a colony on Prince Edward Island as a result of the Scottish Land Clearance in Greater Britain.  This action, however, was military in nature.  Its intention was to cut the Canadian continental trade artery to the Saskatchewan and Pacific, using the poor Scottish settlers as pawns against the Metis Nation.  It was a no-lose scenario, a base to dispose of those vile English half-breeds  (Metis) and surplus Scottish trash.  The upside was the demise of the Canadian North West Company.  The action did not go unnoticed, as (II)-Simon McGillivray, Metis, (1792-1840), a good friend of (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820), in Scotland wrote: "Thomas must be driven to abandon his plan for his success would strike at the very existence of the fur trade".  Simon failed to see that Great Britain herself was the source of the real problem and (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) a simple ignorant pawn.  Many new comers to Hudson Bay are from Glasgow, the Highlands and Ireland.  To make matters worse, some are Roman Catholic and had brought their priest.  William Auld wrote that the new French Canadian servants will evanesce more readily with the Irish because of a common religion.

Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) established three colonies, namely Prince Edward Island, Upper Canada (Baldoon) and Red River.  Douglas was not a hands on manager and only made two brief visits to P.E.I., two weeks at Baldoon and didn't visit Red River until 1818.  He hired agents to look after his affairs.  He said on more than one occasion that the "malignant effect of the American climate: effected his subordinates.  Captain John MacDonald told Douglas that the proprietor should manage his own holdings or they are doomed to fail.

Douglas had bad judgment in picking agents.
Most agents were self-delusional as was Douglas himself..
Douglas did not listen either to criticism or realistic appraisals of situations.
Douglas did not like agents who challenged his views.
Douglas schemes were so farfetched and were impossible of execution, that many approached to be agents rejected the positions
Douglas mixed colonization plans with fur trading plans.
Douglas didn't appreciate the opposition from the North West Company and freetraders.
Douglas fail to appreciate the hostility from the Metis or the Gov't of P.E.I.
Douglas considered his agents service as unsatisfactory and terminated most prematurely.

There is little doubt that Thomas Douglas was an incompetent leader and had few if any managerial skills.  Captain John MacDonald advice was right on when he told Douglas his plans were doomed to fail.  Because Thomas Douglas lacked management skills, he employed agents who were also incompetent.  Even if he adopted a hands-on management style it was still doomed to failure.  The worst disaster of the three was the Red River Colony.   

Major Agents employed between 1803 and 1820 by Thomas Douglas:

Prince Edward Island  started 1802-1803 but was not intended to be a colony.  The settlers were bound for Baldoon but gov't resistance forced their diversion to P.E.I.

James Williams (1803-1815), principle agent, and is considered the most dishonorable agent, Douglas started legal action against him but he fled the Island.  The records were a mess
Angus MacAulay (1759-1827), a recruiter for Baldoon, in conflict with Douglas as agreements with Highlanders not being honored.  Disagreed with Williams and took the side of the settlers..
Charles Stewart (1759-1813).  Douglas considered him a diabolical man with a touch of mental derangement.
Basil Hall (1788-1844), nephew of Douglas sent to catch Williams in wrong doings.
Captain John MacDonald (1742-1810)
William Johnstone (1779-1828)
Thomas Halliday (d-1821), a stonemason, kept the illegitimate daughter of Douglas, Mary Cowchren. d-1859, her daughter put on tombstone Mary Douglas only daughter of Lord Selkirk.
Samuel Prescott Fairbanks (1795-1828) a native of N.S.

Upper Canada (Baldoon) built on a swampy property picked out by Douglas, it killed the most settlers by malaria.  Even when Douglas recognized his error and told them to move to higher ground, McDonell ignored his orders.

 William Burn (1758-1804) a recruiter expected to be chief of Baldoon, he and his men drank themselves into oblivion.  He died of malaria but Douglas suggested it was excessive temperance.  His books were a mess. 
Alexander McDonell (1742-1842) appointed agent Baldoon but he didn't live there, and disliked Burn and Sims.  He was considered a walking disaster.  He cost Douglas £10,000. 
Dr. John Sims (1806-1809) fired 1809
Thomas Clark (d-1835)

HBC Red River founded in 1812 it was from the beginning ill conceived, poorly implemented and further confused by linking it to the fur trade.  The HBC completely ignored that Red River des Metis existed for more that 20 years by NWC and free traders..

Miles McDonell (MacDonald) (1767-1828) constantly fought with HBC William Hillier, due to overlapping duties, was incapable of keeping books, his journal demonstrated his incompetence.  He failed to construct any infrastructure and went from one major misjudgment to another.  He had a nervous breakdown and had asked to be relieved of duty.
Owen Keveny (d-1816) an Irishman, was 2nd in command and fought with McDonell, and was murdered in 1816
(I)-Colin Robertson (1783-1842) worked for Douglas and HBC, quit in 1816 saying colony doomed to fail.  Major strategic differences with Semple
Robert Semple (1777-1816) an American, considered a pathetic person, was killed by the Metis in 1816
Archibald McDonald (1790-1853), a recruiter
Alexander MacDonald (1774-1828)

The problems of the North American Agents was chronic, many created by Douglas himself.
Non of the three settlements bore much resemblance in the execution to Douglas's original intentions.
The books of the Red River colony could not be separated from HBC records.
Most agents ignored the interests of Douglas because he was not a hands on manager. 
Douglas offered the drunkard Daniel McKenzie an estate in Scotland if he would transfer all the NWC assets at Fort William to himself.  He finally realized his "ill-judged conduct", as he lost his repetition as a man of honor and exposed the company to legal actions.  He however blamed Miles McDonell rather than himself.

The reason for the founding of the South West Company, which acquired the Michilimackinac Company, was to avoid American taxes.

The Hudson Bay Company recorded the employment of 21 half-breeds  (Metis).  Others raised at the forts are classified as whites.  The total number of employees is 320, including 80 who were to depart for Great Britain.  They are wintering near York Factory at Seal Island.  Thirty five whites are scheduled to depart next year for Red River des Metis.  The North West Company is claimed to have 1,200 employees.  The number of Canadian Freemen is not known but most likely exceeds two hundred.

The Mackinac Company sold its assets to (I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) a German/American of the American Fur Company, and he called it The South West Company.  This company was short lived, as it was merged in 1816 with his American Fur Company.

Thomas Douglas of Selkirk (1771-1820), son of Dumbar Douglas and Helen Hamilton, had dug a political hole and is desperately trying to find a way out. He had been attempting to get support from the government to recruit Scottish Highlanders as soldier settlers for a colony at Lake Winnipeg in Canada. The Government told him many times that it was not tenable. Thomas was quickly losing his honor and credibility in the Highlands when he jumped at a scheme to recruit bold and hearty peasantry to people the Lake Winnipeg colony. William Young wrote that the Earl of Selkirk has brought himself into an awful scrape and us to a world of trouble, for what can people now do for themselves, without proper aid from the Government. The residents of Kildonan developed a great anger toward Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk (1771-1820), as did his future settlers north of the Metis Red River des Metis Settlement.

Henry Marie Brackenride ascended the Missouri River with the Missouri Fur Company under the leadership of Manuel Lisa.  Wilson Price Hunt led the Pacific Fur Company bound for Astoria, Oregon was on the river at the same time and they traveled together for a while.  The Lisa group consisted of 25 men including 20 oars men who were mostly Canadians and Creoles.  They were of the opinion that Americans were not considered up to the task.  They claimed that Touissant Charbonneau (1767-1843) and his slave wife Sacajawea (1789-1812) of the Louis and Clark expedition were their guides.  Each village we visited the People would present the Metis offspring of the Louis and Clarke expedition.

The active Canadian Fur trading forts, houses and posts dominate the the fur trade in the North West Territories.  The Canadian Fur Trade is dominated by the North West Company, but independent trade is significant.


Fort Good Hope Post
Blue Fish River Post
Fort Norman
Great Bear Lake Post
Rocky Mountain House Post
Forks of Mackenzie Post
Fort Riviere au Liard Post


Lac a La Martre Post
Slave Fort


Rocky Mountain House
Fort St. John
Fort Dunvegan
Fort of the Forks
McLeod's Fort
Horseshoe House
Fort Vermilion
Fort Liard
Fort du Tremble
Red River Fort
Fort Wintzel


Fond du Lac Post
Fort Chipewyan (1)
Fort Chipewyan (2)
Pond's House


Fort Pierre au Calumet
Fort of the Forks
Lac La Biche Post
Lesser Slave River House
Lesser Slave Lake Fort
Athabasca River Post (1)
Athabasca River Post (2)
Jasper House
Henry's House


Fort de T'Original 
Green Lake House
Fort Ile a La Crosse
Fort Lac Des Boeufs
Methye Lake House


Fort Lac La Ronge
Pelican Narroes Post
Fort La Traite House
Reindeer Lake House
Bedford House
Nelson House
Indian Lake House


Bears Backbone House
Paint Lake House
Sipiwesk House
Cross Lake House
Wiggs House
Burntwood Lake House
Cross Lake House
Jack River House
Reed Lake House


Action House
Boggy Hall
Quagmine House
Fort White Earth River
Fort Augustus
Fort De L'Isle
Fort George
Fort Vermilion
Fort De L'Isle
Turtle River House
Battle River House
Fort Montagne de L'Aigle
Fort La Montee
Fort du Bilieu
Fort Sturgeon
Fort Provindence
Fort St. Louis


Bow River Fort
Fort La Jonquiere
Chesterfield House
South Branch House


Fort a La Corne
Isaac's House
Finlay's House
Fort Lower Nipawi (Nepoin)
Hungary Hall House
Cumberland House
Upper Settlement House
Lower Settlement House
The Pas (Pascoyac) Post
Beaver Lake Post
Cedar Lake House
Fort Bourbon


Swan Lake House
Bird Mountain House
Somerset Post
Fort Dauphin


Belleau House
Malboro House
Alexandri Post
Grant's House
Shell River House
Fort Esperance
Fort Montagne a La Bosse
Ash House
Fort Souris
Brandon House
Fort des Trembles
Portage La Prairie (Le Reine)
Adheman's Fort
Blondeau House
Fort Gibralter
Frobisher's Fort
Riviere aux Mort Post
Fort Maurepas
Bas de La Riviere - Winnipeg Post
Fort Maurepas
Red Lake House
Fort Pembina
Grant's House
Henry's House
Roy's House
Turtle River Post
Grand Forks House 


Grand Portage Warehouse
Fort Charlotte
Fort William
Mille Lacs House
Sturgeon Lake Post
Fort Kaministiouia
Rainy Lake House
Fort St. Dierre
Lake of the Woods House
Fort Charles
Rat Portage House
Red Lake House
Cabottes House
Portage de L'Isle Post

There were hundreds of  supply shacks, as the Hudson Bay called them, and unrecorded Canadian and Metis trading.  They provided foods such as meats, grains and vegetables. They also provided canoes, horses and other supplies and they also engaged in the fur trade and provided  freighting services.  As many have reported- they were everywhere.

January 10:  An uprising of over 400 slaves was put down in New Orleans.  Sixty six African-Americans are executed and their heads strung up along the roads of the city to deter others seeking freedom.

January 11:  Chief Factor (I)-William Hemmings Cook (1766-1846), at York Factory wrote:  Our gentlemen have, all though rather reluctantly, been out in tents and are there yet.  York Factory only contained three or four men and so cold was the main building, and so inefficient and ineffectual are its fireplaces, that serious consideration is being given to abandoning it in winter. 

January 15:  In a secret session US Congress planned war on Spain, they planned to invade and annex Spanish Florida.

March 7:  Moose Factory birth (III)-James Richards, Metis son (II)-William Richards, Metis d-1811 and (II)-Eleanor Thomas, Metis born November 22, 1780 daughter (I)-John Thomas Sr.(1751-1822)  

April:  An advertisement called for young active stout men to build a colony in Canada. They are not told that a colony already exists, and that they will be used as weapons of war. William Auld made it very clear that army regulars would be required, as open conflict would break out.

June 11:  Winnipeg District, birth (II)-Mary Inkster, Metis baptized January 23, 1821 Red River daughter (I)-James Inkster, (1774-1854) and Mary a Cree Woman: married 1828 James Taylor. 

June 27:  Charlton Portage, birth (II)-Mary (Polly) Fidler, Metis, daughter (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary a Swampy Cree Indian (1771-1826); married (I)-John Foulds (1798-1868).

July 4:  The privateer (I)-Jean Lafitte (Laffite) (1780/81-1825/26) a French/Spanish mixed blood sank a Spanish Galleon off the beaches of South Texas carrying an estimated $500,000 in gold.

July 12:   Michel Cadotte sent Guilliaume LaLonde to Lake Superior.

July 13:   Michel Cadotte sent Souverain Danie to Lake Superior.

July 15:  It was stated: Mr. Jean Baptiste Cadotte, having since the year 1802 received from the Concern one hundred pounds currency per annum as a donation at their pleasure - the same be discontinued after the payment that shall take place in the year 1813 - it having been considered that he holds the place of Indian Interpreter in Upper Canada, and is thereby enabled to support himself without the Company's assistance.

August 9:   Etienne LaMoucour sent Augustin Robinson to Lake Superior.

August 11:  A comet appeared, which was not predicted, and is still visible in December.  Some religious believed that this was a manifest indication of the wrath of heaven and the destruction of the world by fire.  

October 11:  Florissant, Missouri, marriage Jacques Perras to (III)-Helene Marechal, Metis, daughter (II)-Francois Marechal, Metis, born March 31, 1751 Cahokia, (Illinois) and Marie Therese Riviere. 

December 11:   Baby Dorion Metis born enroute from St. Louis to Astoria on the Pacific coast died January, 1812 child Pierre Dorion Metis (1780/82-1814) and Marie Aioe Laguivoise (Wihmunkewakan) (1786-1850) also known as Marie Aioe Dorion Venier Toupin.

December 16:   The most intense earthquake was centered in New Madrid, Missouri, about 50 miles south of the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.  One million square miles was shaken.  Chimneys were knocked down in Cincinnati, 400 miles away. Shocks were felt 500 miles away in New Orleans, and in Boston 1,100 miles distant.  James Audubon in Kentucky wrote that the earth waved like a field of corn before the breeze.  The course of the Mississippi was changed; some islands disappeared, and new lakes and creeks were created.

Back to Top


METIS HISTORY: Return to METIS 1800-1849 index