METIS  CULTURE 1818-1820

 that the Metis are a Distinct Tribe of Red River and have been
for a considerable time into the past


METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1800-1849 index



(II)-William McGillivary (1764-1825) a Metis proclaimed 
that the Metis are an independent People entitled to:
Rights to property in the soil.
Protection from the British.
A flag of their own.


            Mackinac Marriages, 1765-1818

         Ethnicity                                   Number               Percent
Between Euro-Americans                        8                    18.60
Between Euro-Americans and Indians      6                    13.95
Between Euro-Americans and Métis       22                    51.16
Between Métis                                          2                     4.65
Between Métis and Indians                        2                     4.65
Between African-Americans                      1                      2.33
Uncertain                                                   2                     4.65

(I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) with his American fur Company did not make inroads in the Mackinac fur trade until it was returned to American Authority in 1815 and more importantly the 1817 law to ban Canadian and foreign fur traders from American territories. 

Lucy Beaubien, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818 Mackinac daughter Charles Beaubien, and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Alexis Beaudoin is employed by the American Fur Company at Lac du Flambeau.

Edward Biddles, an employee of the American Fur Company, son of the Biddles who arrived Pennsylvania 1681; married at Michilimackinac Agatha an Ottawa Indian or Metis Woman.  They adopted Yow-as-o-quay- an orphaned Indian girl b-1817 daughter Kashawa and Ottawa Woman.  

(I)-John Bell (1799-1868) arrived in Canada and joined the North West Company.  In 1824 he is transferred to the Mackenzie District by the Hudson Bay Company.  He was a modest, unassuming man; a fur trader and explorer of the Canadian far North West.

Carlton House, birth (II)-Phillip Bird, Metis son (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Elizabeth Oo-menahomiski; traveled to Oregon territory, 1854 married Mary Fidler

(I)-George Budge, Orkney, (1779-1847) employed HBC (1797-1818) is assigned to New Brunswick (1816-1818), he was discharged by a Mr, Vincent and George went to the Lake Superior area, was at Sault Ste. Marie, Michipicoten and Drummonds Island (1818-1819).

(II)-Alexander Christie Metis Jr. b-1818 Rupert's House son (I)-Alexander Christe Sr. (1783-1872) and Ann Thomas Metis employed HBC (1834-1852)

Angelique Cadotte, Metis, b-1818, N.W. daughter, Laurent Cadotte, born February 8, 1766, Bastican, Quebec and Suzanne Mackegone a Cree; married Daniel McDonald.

Mary Campbell, Metis born about 1818, died1844 Upper Mississippi District daughter John Duncan Campbell (1802-1847) and Dakota woman; married Charles Sweet

Robert Campbell, Ojibwa Metis, born 1818 Mackinac son John Campbell, Ojibwa Metis and White Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Louis Cantwa, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818 son Alphonse Cantwa, Pawnee Metis, b-1786 Saulte Ste Marie and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty. 

Jean Baptiste Charboneau, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818, arrived 1826, St. Ignace, son Louis Charbeau, Ojibwa Metis, and Susan Ojibwa Metis b-1806, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.   

Bazil Charboneau, Ojibwa Metis, b-1817, arrived 1826, St. Ignace, son Louis Charbeau, Ojibwa Metis, and Susan Ojibwa Metis b-1806, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.   

Indian Lake , Churchill, District: birth (II)-Anne Charles, Metis, daughter (I)-John Charles, b-1784 and (II)-Jane Auld, Metis (1794-1841) 

Prairie du Chien, birth Caritine Brisbois, Metis daughter Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein.

Nancy Constin, Ottawa Metis, b-1818 Mackinac, daughter Pierre Constin, deceased, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-John Corcoran d-1827 of Ireland came to York Factory as HBC employee (1818-1855), Brother (I)-Patrick Corcoran d-1787 Quebec, (I)-Thomas Corcoran, (I)-Richard Corcoran, (I)-Edward Corcoran.  He had one child at Sault Ste. Marie b-1827, Mary Corcoran b-1821 Micawbanish, New Brunswick, died April 20, 1873, living with his brother (I)-Thomas Corcoran (1794-1865) Moose District, married (II)-Thomas Wiegand aka Wiggand, Metis b-1795/1800 and living Albany 1855.  He retired to England 1826, no mention of his wife but likely Indian or Metis.  Brothers Thomas b-1794, Patrick b-1787, Richard b-1823 and Edward all worked HBC

(I)-Thomas Corcoran (1794-1865) of Ireland came to York Factory as HBC employee (1818-1856) , brother (I)-Patrick Corcoran d-1787 Quebec, (I)-John Corcoran d-1827, (I)-Thomas Corcoran, (I)-Richard Corcoran, (I)-Edward Corcoran.  Married 1822 widow of (I)-Donald McPherson d-1819 Hudson Bay and (II)-Charlotte Sutherland Metis daughter of (I)-John Sutherland, (other records suggest (II)-Charlotte McBeath Metis or Indian b-1770).  I think there is confusion between (I)-Donald's McPherson's widowed Charlotte and (II)-John McPherson b-1816 Charlotte?.   Recorded children are:
    (II)-Jane Isabella Metis 
    (II)-Margaret Corcoran Metis 
    (II)-Mary Corcoran Metis Daughter (I)-John Corcoran b-1821 married Thomas Wiegand at Albaby
    (II)-John McPherson Metis b-1817 son (I)-Donald McPherson d-1819 and Charlotte McBeath Metis b-1770. 
    (II)-Young Male Corcoran died 1840

John Crow, Ottawa Metis, b-1818 Green Bay, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as lives at Green Bay.

William H. Cross, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818, arrived 1829 Mackinac son Cross who is improvident and bound to the mission, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(II)-John Patrick Cunningham Metis born Feb 16, 1818, IIe a La Crosse, Saskatchewan District d-1870 Paint Creek (Edmonton, Alberta area) son (I)-Patrick Cunningham (1789/94-1831) Ireland, and (II)-Mary (Anne) Bruce, Metis, (1794-1859). John joined HBC (1833-1868)-Saskatchewan and Athabasca Districts  (1834-1836) Columbia District in 1841,  John Patrick Cunningham had three successive wives and twelve recorded children. On 1837 married Jane Work Metis and on child,  On February 28, 1841, he married Margaret Mondion of Saskatchewan at Rocky Mountain House. It appears that they had no children. Margaret may have died, as four and a half years later on September 15, 1846 at Lake

Martens Falls, Albany River, birth, (III)-Thomas Daniel, Metis, baptized November 9, 1832 Red River, died July 20, 1841, son (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) and Indian Woman

John Baptiste Desnoyer, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818, arrived 1833 On the Lakes, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected lives at Black River out of district.

Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) is working for the N.W.C at Post St. Croix Valley & Lac Coutereille Districts.  He joined the American Fur Company this year, becoming a nationalized American citizen employed at the Folle Avoine Dept.

Sophia Enos, Ottawa/Ojibwa Metis, b-1818, arrived 1835, Moskego, wife James Enos, and daughter Francis Bailly, Ottawa Metis and Ojibwa woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-Francis (Frank) Ermatinger (1798-1858) employed HBC (1818-1853), a most despicable man, who left a trail of wives and children across the country.
            KNOW MARRIAGES
        1st Unknamed Indian Woman born Severn married (1818-1825) and had one known son (abandoned) who later married Severn 1841 David Bird
        2nd Cleopatra, a Okanagan Woman married 1827 (1826 to 1831), one son (II)-Lawrence Ermatinger, Metis b-1828, Kamloops, daughter b-1831 died shortly after birth. (abandoned)
        3rd Mary Three Dresses, a Flathead Woman, married 1834; (II)-Mary Ermatinger (1838-1840), (abandoned) married Peter Askley of Montana
        4th Catherine Sinclair marriage August 10, 1842 daughter William Sinclair; daughter (II)-Frances (Fanny) Maria Ermatinger, Metis: married John Crawford of St. Thomas, Ontario
        5th Ermatinger filed for divorce from Catherine Sinclair in 1849 and retired to St. Thomas, Ontario, where he died.

Isabelle Gourneau, Metis, b-1818 Minnesota died May 01, 1904, St. Charles, Manitoba, daughter Joseph George Guernon, aka Gorneau, Guernon, & Gernon, Metis, b-1795 La Pointe, Wisconsin, died after 1854 son Joseph Guernon and Nowanankkee b-1794; married Joseph Delorme, b-1815, died July 5, 1874, Dakota Territory, son Amable Delorme and Josephte Belly.

The American Fur Company employs Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838)  this year. 

Caroline Gravereat, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818 Mackinac, daughter Henry Gravereat and Charlotte Ojibwa Metis b-1790, listed March 28, 1836.

(II)-Thomas Hodgson Metis (1789/1790-1865) employed HBC at Albany (1800-1814) joined NWC (1818-1821) assigned to St. Maries, Fort William and Columbia District. 

Joseph Huppee Metis b-1818 Red River likely the same person as Joseph Huppe Metis Jr. b-1816/18 Red River son Joseph Huppe Sr. b-1788 and Marguerite Marcellais Metis b-1793;  However he married Josephte Cyr b-1812 daughter Louis Cyr b-1797 and Nancy Metis b-1799 or 2nd wife Elise Cummings b-1805
    unnamed child b-1849
    John Huppee Metis b-1851
    Jean Huppee Metis b-1858

Therese Jackson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818, arrived 1826 Mackinac, a servant of E. Biddle, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

 (III)-Jean (John) Baptiste Jourdain b-1718 of Green Bay  etablia a la Baie-Verte June 27, 1718 Montreal, Quebec, son (II)-Guill Alexander Jourdian b-1636 and (II)-Angelique Roy aussi appelee la Reine; married 1746 Mackinimackinac, New France (Michigan), Marie Joseph Reaume Metis b-1728/29 of La Baye (Green Bay), New France (Wisconsin) daughter Jean Baptiste Reaume and  Symphorose Ouaouabouigne (8a8ab8ke8e) Qoua gua Bouk Que.
           (IV)-Marie Josephe (Liselle) Jourdain, dit Josette Metis b-1747/51 South West bapt 1756 Michillimackinac d-1777 Fort Detroit, marriage 1764  Michillimackinac  Jean Baptiste (Francois) LeBeau LeBlanc) born 1712 aka  (Franceway, Saswee and Shish),
           (IV)-Jean Baptiste Jourdain, Metis, born south west November 1748 at La Baye, bapt 1749 Michillimackinac
           (IV)-Marie Magreline Jourdain Metis b-1754 bapt 1756 Michillimackinac
           (IV)-Marie Louise Jourdain, Metis, about 1760 south west of  Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), 1st married Jean Baptiste Lebeau, 2nd marriage June 30,1790, St Louis Missouri, Michel Quesnel.
           (IV)-Marie Angelique Jourdain, Metis, 1759 south west of Michillimackinac,  baptised July 16, 1760, British Michillimackinac, (Michigan) married Augustin Roch.
           (IV)-Marie Joseph Jourdain, Metis, b-1751, baptised July 19, 1756, Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), married July 24, 1764 British Michillimackinac, (Michigan) Francois Lablanc
The following men couldn’t be linked to this family but some likely belong?
Jean Baptiste Jourdain b-1782 joined HBC (1837-1842) Esquimaux Bay Labrador
Louis Jourdain Metis born Ruperts Land joined HBC (1839-1879) English River
          Louis Jourdain Metis joined HBC (1874-1886) Lac La Plue
Alexis Jourdain (Jondeaux) b-1825/26 Pembina, d-1861 a voyager married 1847/50 Pembina, (7)-Angelique Nahzhenequay Gurneau aka Gourneau {Grenon}, Metis born 1827/1828, La Pointe or Pembinad-1854,  married 2nd Bozil Jourdain

Cumberland House, birth (II)-Philip Kennedy, Metis, baptized October 4, 1820, Norway House died July, 1873 son (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) and, Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) aka Mary Isbister and Bear (1782-1863), Cree Metis: married 1838 (II)-Jesse McKenzie Metis b-1824 daughter (O)-Roderick McKenzie (1791-1830)

James Kipp (1788-1880) of Montreal arrived at the Upper Missouri River at Fort Mandan, being employed by the North West Company.  Kipp married 1st Medicine Bird Mandan, 2nd Four Bears (Earth Woman) also Mandan and he was reported to also been married to the daughter of Alexander Culbertson son Joseph Culbertson and Mary Finley and Natawischicksina (Blackfoot).  Some suggest he also had a white wife and family in Independence Missouri.

Suzanne Lafournaise, Metis, b-1818, Red River des Metis Settlement daughter Joseph B. Lafournaise, b-1775 St. Eustache, Quebec and Suzanne Leclere dit Allard Sarcie Metis, b-1786 Red River des Metis; married Francois Gosselin, b-1817 N.W., died 1907.

Marguerite Lagimodiere b-1808 daughter of Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere and Marie Anne is married to de Meuron, the first Catholic marriage by a priest in Red River.  The claim is that both parents are white and Marguerite is the first born white child and the first married by a priest.  This appears to be a quest for firsts, rather than facts.  If true, she married at age 10.  Possible but not likely.

Jean Baptiste Lesage, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1818 to 1846.  

Brothers Joseph Lizotte and Francois Lizotte are employed by the American Fur Company at Fond du Lac (Lake Superior) district.

(III)-William McKay, Metis (1818-1883) son (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877/87) and (II)-Harriet Ballenden Metis (1795/1800-1854); joined HBC (1837-1883) Swan River, Fort Pitt, Saskatchewan; 1882 Fort Edmonton

Donald MacKenzie explored southern Idaho for trading potential.

John McNinch, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818, arrived 1826 Mackinac, son McNinch and Angelick Ojibway, Ojibwa Metis b-1800, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  John is bound to the mission.

(I)-Robert Seaborn Miles (1795-1870) arrived Montreal 1818, joined HBC (1818-1860) Athabasca, York Moose and Lake Huron, in Athabasca (1818-1821) & Lake Huron (1858-1860) retired 1861 Ontario.  married 1822 (II)-Elizabeth (Betsey) Sinclair Metis (1805-1878) epouse (I)-George Simpson (1787/92-1860) the bigamist.  Betsey is the daughter (I)-William Sinclair (1766-1818) and Margaret Nahoway Cree or Metis?
    (II)-Maria Simpson Metis d-1838 daughter (I)-George Simpson (1787/92-1860) the bigamist and  (II)-Elizabeth (Betsey) Sinclair Metis (1805-1878) whom he abandoned; Maria married Robert Wallace 
    (II)-John Miles Metis b-1825 York Factory, d-1861 Victoria, married 1861 Elizabeth Merson
    (II)-Margaret Miles Metis b-1828 York Factory, d-1874, married (I)-James Stewart Clouston (1826/48-1874)
    (II)-George Miles Metis b-1830 York Factory b-1867 Chicoutimi, Quebec
    (II)-Robert Miles Metis b-1833 York Factory
    (II)-Elizabeth Miles Metis (1835-1923) married (I)-Robert Crawford (1826-1891)
    (II)-Ann Seaborn Miles Metis b-1838 Rupert's House married 1863 (I)-Robert Hamilton (1826-1891)
    (II)-Mary Miles Metis b-1841 Rupert's House d-1923 married William Hamilton
    (II)-Harriet Miles Metis b-1842 Rupert's House married 1868 Brockville, Ontario, Adam Hudsprth
    (I)-Hannah Moore Miles Metis married 1872 to Steele

(I)-David Munro b-1799 Scotland joined HBC (1818-1842) York Factory, assigned (1842-1844) Columbia District and settled Willamette.   By 1850, David Munro had one wife Betsy native b-1798-?), of unknown origin, and children 
    (II)-Finlay Munro Metis b-1824 York Factory joined HBC York Factory (1839-1865),  d-1901
    (II)-Alexander Munro Metis b-1826 York Factory
    (II)-Christian Munro Metis b-1834 York Factory
    (II)-Ellen Munro Metis b-1836 York Factory
    (II)-Catherine Munro Metis b-1837 York factory
    (II)-David Munro Metis b-1839 York Factory.

Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826) and Marie Angelique Couvret Metis b-1770 daughter (II)-Joseph Victor Couvert b-1695 and Charlotte Demeurant an Objibwa of Sault Ste. Marie;  and family relocated from Sault St. Marie to Red River.  They had 3 boys and 4 girls
    Augustin Nolin Metis (1781-1848) married 1822 Pembina Helene Ann Cameron Metis b-1806, free trader (1818-1830) joined HBC (1830-1837)
    Francois Nolin Metis
    Louis Nolin Metis interpreter at Red River (1815-1817
    Marguerite Nolin Metis b-1790 first teacher at Red River, married Antoine Grouette b-1795
    Angelique Nolan Metis a younger sister also a first school teacher at Red River

Augustin Nolin (1781-1848) son Jean Baptiste Nolin and Marie Angelique Couvret, b-1770 became a free trader and entered into an agreement, through Joseph Default with (I)-Andrew Stewart, (1789-1822), HBC to jointly oppose the NWC at Mattagami.  

Augustin Nolin (1781-1848) between 1818-1827 sells out to O.K. Ermatinger and goes to Pembina and Red River as a free trader.

Norman Peck, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818, arrived 1826 Mackinac, father dead, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Bound to the mission.

Sarah Plante, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818 St. Ignace, daughter Michael Plante and grand daughter of the Bear Skin, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Dakota, birth 1818/25 Gabriel Renville adopted son Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).

Jean Baptiste Roy is employed by the American Fur Company in the department of Fond Du Lac, Lake Superior.

(I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) joined HBC (1818-1844) assigned (1818-1819) Norway House; (1819-1822) Lac La Pluie; (1822-1823) Thompson River; (1823-1824) Fort Alexander Bas de la Riviere District; (1814-1832) New Caledonia; 1832-1835) Athabasca; (1836-1837) Cumberland House, English River District; (1837-1838) Kootenay; (1838-1939) Cumberland Saskatchewan; 1839-1844) New Caledenia and Columbia District 
1st. married Saulteau Indian girl from Lac La Plue (Ontario)
    (II)-John Ross Metis (1822-1862) bapt 1837, 
    (II)-Walter Ross Metis (1823/27-1855) bapt 1837 
2nd married Isabella Mainville Metis (1809-1885)
    (II)-Elisabeth Ross Metis bapt 1838
    (II)-Charles Ross Metis bapt 1838
    (II)-Catherine Ross Metis bapt 1838
    (II)-Alexander Ross Metis b-1838
    (II)-Francois Ross Metis bapt 1838
    (II)-Flora Amelia Ross Metis bapt 1867
    (II)-Mary Amelia Ross Metis
    (II)-William Ross Metis    

Henry Sayer, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the north bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1818 to 1846.  

York Factory, birth (II)-Fanny Sinclair, Metis b-1818 daughter (I)-William Sinclair, Orkney (1766-1818) employed HBC (1782-1818) and Margaret Nahoway Cree or Metis;

Margaretta Tramblee, Ottawa Metis, b-1818 Grand River, wife of Francis Tromble and sister of Mary M. Beaudeau, Ottawa Metis b-1815, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Simon Fraser (1776-1862) a partner of NWC was tried this year, having been arrested at Fort William by Selkirk's people and charged with complicity in the 1816 Seven Oaks incident.  All were acquitted.  He would later participate in the 1837 rebellion, where he sustained a crippling knee injury. 

Louis Labonte, Joseph Gervais, Etienne Lucier, Louis Kanota and Louis Pichette dit Dupre are free trading in Oregon Territory.

A British map of this period still refers to the Rocky Mountains as the Stony Mountains.

Indians are not welcome in the St. Boniface Settlement.  St Boniface Church is built in recognition of the German Catholic Swiss mercenaries in the employ of (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820).  Money-Master, alias (I)-Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, is convicted in Sandwich, under Canadian law, for breaking and entering and for resisting arrest at Fort William, a serious crime in the North West.  The Money-Master, Fifth Earl of Selkirk, requested and financed the first Catholic priests entry into the Red River region.  This ploy was to ensure his illegal land acquisition, and it receives support from the Roman Catholic Church.  Some would question what part the Roman Catholic Church played in the whole infamous Selkirk affair in order to secure a toe hold in this New Metis Nation. 

Father Severe Dumbulin of Red River worked among the Pembina natives and Metis in their colony of 300 people until 1823.  William Edge, a school teacher, worked with Father Dubulin.  Father Joseph Provencher (1783-1853) also arrived at Red River this summer. On July 16, the missionaries J.N. Provencher, who would become bishop, and S.G. Dumoulin arrived at Fort Douglas (St. Boniface).  He settled at the forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers, among the Metis. Father Dumoulin, during the period 1818 to 1823, attempted to civilize the Chippewa by persuading them to live in permanent villages.  This failed, as the good father could not persuade the Metis to permanently settle in villages.  The Metis knew both ways of life, and the Natives said, why should the Indians do what their brothers would not do?  Provencher's notion of civilization was, to the Natives, enslavement.

The Astor Fur Company, operated by (I)-John Johnson  (1762?-1828 or 1742-1830?), worked Lake Superior.  The traders included William Morrison, Eustace Roussain Metis b-1770/80, Cotte and others.

The American Fur Company outfits covered most of the Chippewa country south and west of Lake Superior.  They reported that the Pembina area was populated with Metis.  Truman Abraham Warren and Lymann Marcus Warren began free trading on the south shore of Lake Superior.  Their competition was from the American Fur Company, which is represented by Lac Court Oreille, Lac du Flambeau and the St. Croix outfits.  The Company is under Astorian (IV)-Michael Cadotte (1764-1837) of La Pointe.  Cadotte is supervisor of the whole region (Northern Outfit).   The Americans establish Pembina as a territory of Minnesota, as distinct from the Red Lake, Red River District.  The Red Lake District has its name from the many battles between the Sioux and the Ojibwa.

The Hudson Bay Company pulled down Fort Daer in Pembina and floated the timber down to Fort Douglas.  They believed that the division of settlers between Red River and Pembina weakened the colony.  Some of the Metis moved to St. Boniface and the rest to White Horse Plain, some 16 miles west of Fort Douglas.  Father Dumoulin thereby lost his mission and returned to Quebec.  Some 350 Metis remained in the area until 1823, when the place is basically deserted.

Locusts destroyed the Red River crop this year and again in 1819.

Selkirk tried to entice Metis settlers, that were supportive of the the English position, into the Selkirk Town on the Red River . Robert Dickson spread the word among the Coureurs des Bois, Indians and Metis in the Minnesota and Michigan Territories. Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826) was one of the first to respond, and wrote in August that he would move to Selkirk Town on the Red River if Selkirk would provide financial assistance to set up a trading post as well as a sizable discount on trade goods. They would need a village house as close to the church as possible, with room for a garden, stable and other buildings. Selkirk agreed to the terms in general and wrote to James Bird, outlining in detail how the Nolin family is to be encouraged and helped. He is to be an example of the new settlement plans. He is hoping Nolin's daughters will fix to the soil more Metis, who will be more disposed to the English intrusion into Red River.

The Hudson Bay Company is expanding its western operations and cutting into North West Company business. Colin Robertson of the Hudson Bay took an army of more than 180 officers and men in twenty-seven canoes to the Athabasca region. This large force, however, did not stop the Canadians; as Robertson was again arrested. Williams of the Hudson Bay Company gathered a force of men at Grand Rapids on the Saskatchewan River, near its mouth, and supported his men with a small cannon which was mounted on a barge. The small cannon and two swivel guns were put ashore and commanded the foot of the rapids. The Nor'Westers made their appearance, bringing the winter's collection of furs from their posts. Threatened with cannon and knowing that Williams enjoyed a fight, they accepted arrest to avoid bloodshed; most likely their own. The Iroquois, when their contracts expire with the N.W.C., have no problems trading with the H.B.C.

Colin Robertson noted, with malicious delight, that the majority of wintering partners of the North West Company were not on the best of terms with their Montreal agents whom they considered the authors of their misfortunes. 

The Metis were very upset that Robertson and Dougla's army had been allowed to winter and pass through Montreal to cause trouble in the North West Metis Nation.

The Metis for unknown reasons shifted from painting on skin decoration to floral patterns of quill embroidery.  Some suggests this reflected their emergence as a distinct ethnic group.  The Metis as a distinct society emerged at least a century early in the Great Lakes Region some times called the Old North West.

John Franklin, b-1786 sailed in search of the N.W. Passage but only reached the 80 Latitude.

Britain and the US established the 49th parallel as the boundary between Canada and the US.

It is reported that there are 10,000 slaves in Missouri when application is made for statehood.

March 18:   (II)-William McGillivray Metis (1764-1825), a Nor'Wester, finally had had to admit about the Metis: "They one and all look upon themselves as members of an independent tribe of natives; entitled to a property in the soil, to a flag of their own, and to protection from the British Government".  Further it has been proven that the half-breeds (Metis) under the denominations of bois brûlé and metifs have formed a separate and distinct tribe of Indians for a considerable time back in the Red River region.  This year McGillivary put aside his Cree wife and she lived out her days at Fort William.

April: Athabasca Department, birth (II)-Annabella (Arabella), Metis, baptized August 12, 1821 daughter (I)-Roderick McKenzie Jr. (1791-1830), and (II)-Sally Sutherland, Metis (1777-1827) daughter of (I)-James Sutherland and Indian Woman; married 1832, John Clarke Spence Metis son Josepg Spence and Indian woman.
    John Southerland Spence Metis bapt 1833
    Amelia Spence Metis bapt 1835
    Jessy Crawfford Spence bapt 1837.. 

May 10:   Michael Dousman at Green Bay, Wisconsin sends his regards to Portlier, (IV)-Augustin Grignon, Powell, (Louis) Gournoe and Jacob at Mackinac.  Isabel Garneau- the half-breed (Metis), is born about 1818 La Pointe, Wisconsin daughter Louis Gurnoe born 1790 and Se-Ranze born 1800.  She would marry September 9, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin a Henry Cotte the half-breed (Metis).  Truman Abraham Warren (married (V)-Mary Cadotte (1805-1887) and Lyman Marcus Warren (married (V)-Mary Cadotte (1800-1848) free traders arrived La Pointe to trade in the area.  In 1821 they married into the Cadotte family and by 1823 acquired (IV)-Michael Cadotte (1764-1837) interest in the La Pointe post.

March 15:   Louis Genereux, a half breed, witnessed a baptism at Mackinac.  He had a trading post on Grand River not far from Ionia.

March 19: Moose Factory, birth (II)-Anne Swanson, Metis daughter (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown, Metis d-before 1835. 

July 6:   Francois Generoux married in the Hamilton area a Mary Smith (1795-1878) daughter Benjamin Smith (1773-1851) and Nancy Gordon.

July 16:  Three priests arrived at Red River:  Joseph Norbert Provencher, Sevre Joseph Nicolas Dumoulin and Guillaume Etienne Edge.  It is reported that they were reluctant to come west.   They received 20 square miles on the east side of Red River and 20 acres on the west side of the river.  It is noteworthy that the inhabitants didn't have proof of land ownership.  Provencher wrote that the Metis' commerce with the whites (Europeans), instead of advancing them towards civilization, has served only to drive them away there- from.  The population was about 1,000 people including 65 of the Swiss mercenary regiment.  Only 225 Scottish Protestant settlers occupied this area.  He considered the Metis as mostly pagan.  

August 14:   Francois Ermatinger (1797-1858) and brother Edward Ermatinger arrived at York Factory in the employ of the Hudson Bay Company.  Francois had three marriages, 1st marriage before 1825 a Cree Woman, one daughter born 1825 Severn District whom he abandoned and she married 1841 David Bird, 2nd marriage 1827 Cleopatra an Okanogan woman, son Lawrence born August 23, 1828 Fort Kamloops, 3rd marriage 1835 Mary Three Dresses a Pend d'Oreille woman, children Mary April 1838 western Montana, died October 14, 1940, son Pierre died November 23, 1902. 

August 24:   Sioux, Mo, birth Barbie Chapard married (II)-Francois Jordan born July 12, 1763 St. Philippe son (I)-Andre Jordan.

December:   York Factory Chief Factor (I)-James Swain Sr b-1775 was short of provisions so he sent his wife and daughter out in the bitter cold for a fortnight to fish and hunt rabbits.  They returned with only a few rabbits.

December 3:  Illinois was admitted as the 21st State of the Union.

December 14:  The pirate Hippolyte Bouchard, a French revolutionary from Buenos Aires, Argentina sailed into Monterey Bay with a 44 gun war ship and demanded gunpowder and other supplies from the Padres at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California.  The Padres refused and the pirates sent 140 men to destroy the mission, and the town was stripped of its provisions.




The western interior received a double setback this year with a dual epidemic of measles and Chincough (whooping cough) which played havoc on the native populations- proving fatal. The Ojibwa suffered fewer losses than other tribes, likely because of the higher levels of Metis blood in their numbers.  It is noteworthy that the Ojibwa could move into an area rejected by the Cree and Assiniboine, which was reported exhausted of fur, and with intensive trapping, secure furs.  This is believed to be how they replaced the Cree and Assiniboine in many areas; with peaceful incursions. The Ojibwa are living at Fort Pelly (Swan River), but are not indigenous to the area. 

Eustache Bellecourt born 1819 died White Earth, Minnesota 1894 married to Josette Turpin (1824-1915) source Jay Holmen re 1850 census Benton County, Minnesota.

Geneviene Belonger, Ojibwa Metis, b-1819, arrived 1831 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Descended from Mississippi Indians.

Angus Bethune (1783-1858) returned from China and Columbia District as partner of the North West Company to Fort William this year.  He spent (1819-1820) at Ile-a-la-Crosse and then London (1820-1821) to represent N.W.C. in the union with HBC.

Tête Jaune aka Pierre Bostonais a freeman guide, and Iroquois Metis guided Jose Gaubin b-1800 Quebec with NWC (1818-1821) working out of Red River over the Rocky Mountains.

Basil (Brazil) Bottineau (Battineau) Metis b-1819 Red River Joined HBC (1839-1852)  HBC Middleman on Athabasca River, Fort Simpson general charges (1839 - 1840); Middleman, Fort McLoughlin (1840 - 1841); Woodcutter, Beaver (steamer) (1841 - 1844); Middleman, Fort Stikine (1844 - 1849); Middleman, Fort Rupert (1849 - 1850); Middleman, Fort Rupert (1850 - 1851); Woodcutter, Beaver (steamer) (1851); Untraced vocation, Fort Victoria (1851 - 1852).  Bottineau had a family but the names of his Stikine native wife and children are not recorded. In July 1850, he fetched them from Stikine and brought them to Fort Rupert.

Francis Boureseau, Ottawa Metis, b-1819, Mackinac, son Louis Boureseau Sr. but does not live with him, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

William Brown estimates that 100 Ojibwa males are living in the Manitoba Lake District this season.

Louis Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1818 Mackinac, father dead, mother Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-Alexander Comloquoy aka Cumloquoy and Cumloquey, b-1793, entered HBC service 1819, married Osnaburgh, Moose District, Indian woman and abandoned her and his four Metis children when he returned to Orkney in 1823.
        (II)-Robert Comloquoy Metis, b-1820 Osnaburgh, Moose District
        (II)-Katharine Comloquoy Metis, b-1821, Osnaburgh, or Albany, Moose District, married Osnaburgh, Moose District, March 1820, John Johnson
        (II)-Mary Comloquoy Metis, b-1822 Albany, Moose District 
        (II)-Nicol Comloquoy Metis, b-1823 Albany , Moose District.

Helen Curtis, Ojibwa Metis b-1819, arrived 1835 Grand River, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as origin unknown.

Helen Daigo, Ojibwa Metis, b-1819 Grand River, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as origin unknown.

Marguerite Gourneau, Metis, b-1819 died after 1895, daughter Joseph George Guernon, aka Gorneau, Guernon, & Gernon, Metis, b-1795 La Pointe, Wisconsin, died after 1854 son Joseph Guernon and Nowanankkee Ojibwa, b-1794, Lake Superior; married 1st John Aiken; married 2nd June 14, 1852, Pembina, Minnesota Territory, Paul Kipling, born 1825 son Thomas Kipling and Marguerite Villebrun

Robert Gravereat, Ojibwa Metis, b-1819 Mackinac, son Henry Gravereat and Charlotte Ojibwa Metis b-1790, listed March 28, 1836.

Moose Factory, marriage (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) employed HBC (1817-1861) to (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1876) daughter (I)-John Sutherland and Indian woman.

(I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) returned to Orkney with sons (II)-John Frederick Kennedy Metis b-1805 and (II)-Alexander Kennedy, Metis b-1808, they went to school 1819 to at least 1821 maybe longer

Pierre Laliberte Metis Jr. (1819-1903) born Red River son Pierre Laliberte b-1776 and Joseopte Gaudry Metis b-1780 NWT; joined HBC (1839-1891) English River
    Baptiste Laliberte Metis b-1861 joined HBC (1880-1904) English River 

Manuel Lisa (1772-1826) 2nd wife Lisa wintered at Fort Lisa just north of present day Omaha, Nebraska becoming the first recorded white woman in Nebraska. 

Lac La Pluie, birth (II)-Robert Logan, Metis son (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) Sault Ste Marie and Mary Saulteaux Indian woman d-1838

Joseph Louisignan, Ottawa Metis, b-1819, Mackinac son Francois Louisignon, Ottawa Metis and Ottawa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Lives in Detroit.

(II)-Angus McPherson Metis b-before 1819 Hudson Bay, son (I)-Donald McPherson d-1819 Hudson Bay and (II)-Charlotte Metis daughter of (I)-John Sutherland, (other records suggest (II)-Charlotte McBeath Metis or Indian b-1770) Angus Charlotte married Thomas Corcoran after his death, they sent him to England and he joined HBC (1830-1840) Lake Superior and (1840-1843) Columbia District

Catherine Rowland, Ojibwa Metis b-1819, arrived 1826 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  An orphan at the mission.

Mrs. William Sylvester, Ojibwa Metis, b-1805, arrived 1819 Mackinac, wife? William Sylvester, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Louis Majeau b-1789, Pierre Boucher, John Duncan Campbell (1802-1847) and Benjamin Frobisher were charged "Principle in the murder of the late Governor (II)-Robert Semple Jr. (1776-1816)".  None were ever convicted in Upper Canada.

The Journey to the Polar Sea (1819-22), made by John Flanklin, departed Fort Chipewyan with 15 Metis, one Italian (Fontano), one Englishman, a Norwegian, two interpretors, an Iroquois (Michel) and two Indian woman. Some of the names were:  W. F. Wentzel, George Back, Hood, Joseph Peltier, Matthew Pelonquin, alias Credit, Solomon Belanger, Joseph Beniot, Joseph Gagne, Pierre Dumas, Joseph Forcier, Ignace Perrault, Francois Samandre, Gabriel Beauparlant, Registe Vaillant, Jean Baptiste Parent, Jean Baptiste Belanger, Jean Baptiste Belleau and Emanuel Cournoyee. Most would perish during this expedition.

A party of Iroquois traders working for the Hudson Bay Company pushed up the Peace River and across the Rocky Mountains into New Caledonia which, until then, was the sole preserve of the North West Company. This season they conducted Ignace Giasson into New Caledonia. (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) employee of the HBC (1820-1860) wrote that the Iroquois must be engaged without delay: "I shall not limit you to terms, we absolutely need their services, and you will therefore make the best bargain you can."

James Tanner of Kentucky passed through Mackinac on his way to Hudson Bay, searching for his brother John Tanner who was kidnapped by the Indians a number of years ago.  On his return trip he came via Red River and discovered his brother living among the Ojibwa at Red River.  John Tanner married Pier La Sauteuse, an Indian woman, and had two children, Martha Tanner and James Tanner.  James wanted John to return with him to Kentucky to see the rest of his family.  John said he was having a great life and didn't want his son living like a white man and learning to tell lies.  He finally agreed to visit Kentucky next year.  It is noteworthy that in one season, James Tanner had traveled to Mackinac, Hudson Bay, Red River and, via the Mississippi River system, back to Kentucky, having spent 2-3 months in Red River.  

A.N. McLeod and George Feith of Fort William, North West Company, on Lake Superior, instructed Julian Tavurnur of Fort Wedderburn, Athabasca to bully and beat the employees of the British Hudson Bay Company.  They promised a handsome reward.  In Athabasca John Clark of British Hudson Bay Company, known for his hate for the Nor'wester, is recklessly short of provisions and faced with the hostility of the dominant Nor'wester. He lost sixteen men through starvation before heading back to the safety of York Factory.

Edward Biddle married his Indian girl at Mackinac. 

Upper Mississippi District, Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851), who married a Dakota woman, is trading above Prairie du Chien for James Lockwood.

H.B.C. established Harrison's House on Fond du Lac (Lake Athabasca) with George P. Andries, a former N.W.C. clerk in charge.   The N.W.C. built a post nearby called Fond du Lac and dominated the trade. The H.B.C. suffered. 

Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826) sold his home, buildings and property at Sault Ste Marie to (II)-Charles Oaks Ermatinger (1776-1853), his renter, and set off for the Red River of the north.  Selkirk had promised free land and discounted trade goods if he would relocate. Nolin was given three choice pieces of land in Assiniboia; his son, Augustin Nolin, received one and his son Louis was on the payroll as interpreter.

Joseph Petrain (1819/20-1876) son Jacques Petrain and Marie Anne Placie (Plaire) from Montreal, joined HBC (1837-1849) Columbia District.  Joseph Petrain had two successive wives and seven recorded children. On April 19, 1843, he married a fourteen-year old Marie Wagner Metis (1829-1847) daughter Peter Wagner (1799-1865) and Mary Steins (Soks) Chinook. Their short-lived children were 
    Catherine Petrain Metis (1844-1844), 
    Joseph Petrain Metis (1845-1846)
    Joseph Ovide Petrain Metis (1846-1848). 
A still young Marie/Marianne died on December 20, 1847. On August 14, 1848, he married Catherine Dolan, from Ireland. Their recorded children were 
    James Petrain b-1849, 
    Charles Petrain b-1851, 
    Mary Jane Petrain b-1853,
    Julie Agnes Petrain  (1855-1855).

(I)-John Pritchard (1777-1855) is in England to testify at trial, I presume against the HBC.

The first church established in the Metis Nation by Father Joseph Norbert Provencher; a young French Canadian who attempted to civilize the Metis until 1848.  Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845), a Nor'wester who spent twenty years in the trade and who took Elizabeth Duval, a Metis, as his country wife, retired from the company and could not abandon his wife as was the growing English custom.  He was not alone as George Nelson, James Hughes and (I)-Joseph Duncan Cameron a Scot (1764-1848)  all took country wives out of the wilderness country. Many more that married Native and Metis took them out upon retirement.  A larger number, however, chose to remain with their 'Country Wives' in the Metis Nation at Red River.  James Hughes refused to submit to a formal marriage with his wife Nan-Touche when they settled in Eastern Canada, saying his 'Country Marriage' was as valid as a church wedding.  He believed marriage is between a man, a woman and God.  The Church, at this time, believed he was living in sin.

A grass hopper plague destroyed the Red River crop this year and again in 1819.  (I)-Andrew McDermott (1783-1881), resident of Red River, a free trader, claimed to be a descendant from the Kings of Ireland.  He was described as "A good trader.  Can speak the language well and is very active and alert in finding out the Indians but he has deceived them so often that they put no faith in his word."  He would marry an Indian woman in 1821.

A convention this year established the forty-ninety parallel boundary to the Stony (Rocky) Mountains, and the Oregon Territory was to remain in joint administration between Canada and the United States.

Joseph D Gurnoe is born 1812 or more likely 1819 at La Pointe, Wisconsin, died 1910, Bayfield, Wisconsin.  He is the son Louis Gurnoe born 1790 and Se-Ranze (Say Shaw Ne Nie) born 1800 Canada.  

The village of Birsay (Orkney Town), Red River is said to only contain a total of twenty-three persons.  (I)-Magnus Spense b-1764/65, in the service of the Company since 1783, became free in 1821 and appears to be the leader and eldest of this group. Birsay was the home parish of Magnus Spence.  This group moved from Brandon house to the Assiniboine, just 3 miles north of the White Horse Plains, during the winter of 1817-1818 to adopt a more sedentary way of life. (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822), in the spring, had counted eight males, two females and thirteen children: six boys and seven girls. Only (I)-Magnus Spence b-1764/65 and (I)-James Monkman (1771/75-1865 had a Cree wife and Metis family of 9 listed against their names. The other wives and children are likely with the Indian side of the family at this time.  Later, the freeman came in from the bison (buffalo), having laid up a good stock, and some of them are moving to the spots they intend to build at.  Whooping cough and measles hit Orkney Town, and James Sandison lost two children on August 4.  (II)-Owman Norquay b-1775 lost one child, and (I)-Oman Norquay (1773-1820) died.  To add to their misery, swarms of grasshoppers destroyed their crops.  Orkney Town was abandoned by mid-September, 1819.  The 1827 census suggests they were absorbed into the main Red River Colony.  The French Canadian Freeman and Metis of Pembina quickly back filled Orkney Town.  

The United States Army (others say Josiah Snelling of the American Fur Company) established Fort Snelling (a.k.a. Fort St. Anthony) near St. Paul, Minnesota, which is a major Metis trading center.  Fort St. Anthony was renamed in 1825 to Fort Snelling.  The Fort is located at the mouth of the Minnesota River, entering the Mississippi River; an ancient Dakota trading location.  The original name is Iminijaska; meaning white rock.  It is noteworthy that over time many settlements were located in the St. Paul region, Little Canada, Mendota, Pig's Eye, and Fountain Cove.  It would not be known as St Paul until 1841.  Some of the settlers relocated below the Fort, calling their settlement Mendota.  Metis and Selkirk settlers have been arriving in the region since before 1815.

Guillaume Beaumette, a stone mason, is helping to build a stone fort at Red River.

The Blue Book of Papers, relating to the Red River Settlement 1815-1819, was presented to the Canadian Parliament. There is no evidence that the government was much concerned with the rights or wrongs of this distant trade war between the English and Scots.

John Franklin, b-1786, John Richardson, George Back, Robert Hood traveled York Factory to Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan River.  There were to survey the northern limits.  Provisions were to be available at Cumberland House but nothing was there.  Franklin, Back and Hepburn went on to Fort Chipewayan on Lake Athabasca. 

A second trading post was established in the Black Hills and in 1840 became a military post and in 1878 named Fort George W. Meade as a cavalry fort in Black Hills of Dakota

February 22:  Spain ceded its legitimate claim to Florida and Oregon not wishing to go to war with the US.

May 19:  (I)- Peter Fidler (1769-1822) made a map of the Red River District, recording the settlement of Birsay village west of Fort Douglas on the Assiniboine River which was built by a group of freemen, some of whom had previously lived in the Brandon House area.  Birsay Village is midway between Lyon Island Kettle Plain. The vast majority of the freeman were Metis Canadians who worked for the French trading companies. Many of the freemen had lived long enough in the North West,  free of the companies, to be regarded as permanent inhabitants of the region. Some had been in the North West trade since 1770. The Hudson Bay Company freemen were far fewer as the company policy was to return servants to Europe when their contract expired. A few former H.B.C. servants, however, had settled in the vicinity of Brandon House, living with the Cree nearly in the same manner as the free Canadians of Red River did with the Ojibwa. Not surprising, most of the Hudson Bay freemen are natives of  Orkney Island which supplied the Bay with 75 percent of the servants by 1800.  (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) suggested that these Orkney freemen were servants who had been dismissed for various misdemeanors and acts of insubordination, rather than servants whose contracts had expired.
John Lyons was set free in August 1816 for refusing to accompany James Inkster on a trip to Indian Elbow on the upper Assiniboine.

June 18:  birth (II)-Margaret Fidler, Metis, died Jully 21, 1819, Red River Forks, daughter (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Indian Swampy Cree woman (1771-1826).

On June 18  John Clark teamed up with William of the British to blockade the Saskatchewan River at the Grand Rapids where it enters Lake Winnipeg.  John Duncan Campbell (1802-1847) and Benjamin Frobisher junior of the Canadians were the first to arrive at the rapids.   York Factory on the Hudson Bay became the internment camp of the Canadians prisoner of war who were taken during portage. 

June 23:  Angus Shaw, d-1832 (II)-William McGillivray's, Metis (1764-1825) brother in law), John George McTavish the bastardize and William McIntosh (1784-1842)  fell into the English ambush.  The Canadians demanded to know under what right did William act. Did he not know of the proclamation issued by the British Prince Regent, ordering all parties to cease from violence in the Indian Territories (Metis Nation Territories)?  William, the British Government representative, responded that he didn't care a curse for the proclamation.  He had sufficient authority and will do as he thinks 'proper', and that legal proceedings are all damn nonsense in the North West Territories.  He would act independently (like a rebel) from the rascally Government of Canada.  He would use every power to drive out of the country every dammed Canadian it contained, or 'perish in the attempt.'  Angus Shaw announced he would return in forty days and spread carnage and bloodshed throughout the country.  McIntosh pretended illness, feigned suicide and eventually escaped down to Red River.  William, the British rebel, took his prisoners down to York Factory- the English stronghold.  William McIntosh (1784-1842) would serve the Hudson Bay Company for 16 years after the merger in 1821, but he, during this English and Canadian war, was summarized by (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, as "a revengeful cold blooded black hearted Man whom I consider capable of anything bad: possessing no abilities beyond such as qualify him to cheat an unfortunate Indian and to be guilty of a mean dirty trick: Suspicious, Cruel, and Tyrannical without honors or integrity".  This is noteworthy, as he kept McIntosh as Chief Trader then promoted him to Chief Factor of Nelson House (1829-29), Cumberland house (1829-32) and Dunvegan  (1832-34).  It would appear that (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, is looking in a mirror. 

July 4:  The territory of Arkansas is created.

July 27:  Marie Janette Piquette, widow of (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1797-1818), is supporting the family at Sault Ste Marie by sewing; as recorded by (I)-John Johnson (1762?-1828 or 1742-1830?), an Irishman, who noted a payment for making pantaloons.

August 24:  Fort William, birth John Harmon Metis died September 22, 1858 Brooklyn, New York son Daniel Williams Harmon born February 19, 1778 Bennington, Vermont died April 1843 Sault au Recollets, Quebec and Lizzette Laval (Duval) Metis born 1790 Rocky Mountain House died February 12, 1861 Sault au Recollet, Quebec. 

August 30:  Captain F. Matthey, a de Meuron settler, informed Selkirk of the new Orkneyman element in the population of the colony. He wrote:  We had the other day an arrival of settlers, Orkneymen, their wives brown and white and their children. They have chosen their lots on the Assiniboine River at Plain du Cheval Blanc and laid the foundation of Orkney Town. There are more expected.

September 12: Moose Factory, birth (II)-William Swanson, Metis son (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown, Metis d-before 1835. 

September 15:  Orkney Town is nearly deserted owing to the fact that crops were being destroyed by grasshoppers and several persons were dying of the Chincough (whooping cough) and Measles.  James Sandison lost two children on August 4, (II)-Oman Norquay, b-1785 lost one child about the same time and (I)-Oman Norquay (1773-1820), himself, one of the elders of the settlement, died shortly afterwards. It would appear that eventually most Orkney freeman joined the main Red River Settlement. (I)-Magnus Spense b-1764/65, James Spence and James Sandison appear in the Red River census of 1827.

In October  Benjamin Frobisher, who received a brutal head wound from the English, and two other Canadians escaped.  Frobisher died of exposure on the shore of Cedar Lake, only two days from a Canadian North West Company Post.  (II)-William McGillivray Metis (1764-1825) and his partners took strong, stern steps to release their fellow Canadians from the English, but the prisoners of war are already in London.  To make things worse, the English rebels attacked Canadian Fort William in force, arresting some sixteen partners including McGillivray himself.  The British took steps to replace the aggressive rebel William with what they thought a more balanced (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, knowing the Canadians would return in force the next season.

December 31: Moose Factory, birth (II)-Mary Fletcher Baioley, Metis, christened January 9, 1820, Moose Factory, daughter (I)-Joseph Beioley aka Bewley (1785-1859) from London and unknown Indian woman.



The Hudson Bay Company finally relented (were pressured) to allow their Metis employees families to settle on the Left (West) bank of the Red River.  Those settling were; 
(I)-William Hemmings Cook (1766-1846) and Indian wife; 
(I)-Thomas Thomas (1766-1828) and Sarah Metis; 
(I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Elizabeth Montour Metis; 
(I)-Alexander Ross and Sarah Indian woman b-1790; 
(I)-John Pritchard (1777-1855) Catherine McGilvray Metis raised/schooled in Mull;  
(I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878) and Half-breed woman; 
(I)-Thomas Bunn (1765-1853) and others with their Metis families.  
The English had a HBC Policy to limit the Metis families of higher positions only to settle Red River.  A few Metis who attained the higher accounting positions were also allowed to settle Red River; 
(III)-John McNab Metis b-1806 son (II)-Thomas McNab Metis b-1781; 
(II)-Charles Thomas Metis b-1793; 
(II)-Charles Bird Metis son (I)-James Curtis Bird; 
(II)-James Hodgson Metis b-1795 son (I)-John Hodgson b-1763; 
(II)-Thomas Fidler Metis (1795-1875) son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) 
The above where sons of senior officers and mostly Anglo Saxon Half-breed rather than French  

Henriette Bailley, Ojibwa Metis. b-1820, Mackinac, daughter deceased Bailley and Mary Hogen, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

This is the first year of a normal wheat harvest in Red River.  Alexis Bailly, Metis, drove a herd of cattle from Prairie du Chien, Minnesota to the Metis Red River settlement. 

Louis Beaubien Jr, Ojibwa Metis, b-1809, arrived 1820 Mackinac son Louis Beaubien Sr., Ojibwa Metis and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Mary Beaubien, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820 Mackinac daughter Charles Beaubien, and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Angelick Beuwain, Metis, b-1820 Sault Ste Marie daughter John D. Le May and Liset Le May b-1796 and wife Pierre Dufault, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as decedents of Indians from north end of Lake Superior.

Tête Jaune aka Pierre Bostonais a freeman guide, and Iroquois Metis guided Ignace Giasson over the Rocky Mountains.

(I)-James Bird aka James Curtis (1773-1856) employed HBC (1788-1824) is posted Forks as Chief Factor Red River (1820-1824) when he retired..

Jean Marie Boucher (1797-1870) Joined NWC (1820-1821) Athabasca, HBC (1821-1836) Athabasca, New Caledonia, York Districts, retired Red River, two marriages, 1st Marie Louise Garneau and 2nd about 1837 at Red River Catherine Minsey (1814-1869)

Charlotte Bradley, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived 1826 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as father resides in Chicago and children are at school in the district.

Nersis Brisbois, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived 1822 Sault Ste Marie, son Joseph Brisbois and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Hines Cadotte, married, Angelick Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798, arrived Sault Ste Marie 1816 & 1831, married 1820, listed March 28, 1836, treaty. 

Paschal Caille came to west coast 1820 and married 1832, Fort Vancouver, Louise Cowichan (1809-1875) a Clallam or Cowichan

John Campbell, Ojibwa Metis, born 1820 Mackinac son John Campbell, Ojibwa Metis and White Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Osnaburgh, Moose District, birth (II)-Robert Comloquoy, Metis, son (I)-Alexander Comloquoy aka Cumloquoy and Cumloquey, b-1793, and Osnaburgh, Indian woman

(II)-John Cumming Metis b-1820 son (I)-Cuthbert Cumming (1787-1870) and Susette Indian of Swan River, joined HBC (1841-1844) Columbia District, went to Red River 1844.

Josette Enos, Ottawa Metis, b-1820 Grand River, sister Emily B. Smith Ottawa Metis b-1814, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Nancy Farley, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived 1826 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Bound to the mission by Father.

(I)-Peter Fidler (1679-1822) filed his report on the Dauphin District, saying the Ojibwa traded largely for cloth, blankets, guns, kettles and capots, whereas the the Cree took mostly rum.  It is noted that all traders got free ammunition and tobacco.  For every ten animal skins, they received a quart of high wines plus some gifts for their wives such as beads, knives, awls, fire steel and gartering.  It is reported that 572 Ojibwa are in the Dauphin (Manitoba) District this year.

Moose Lake, birth (II)-William Flett, Metis son (I)-George Flett (1775-1850) and (II)-Margaret (Peggy) Whitford, Metis b-about 1798 

(I)-William Fleet (1786-1852) employed HBC (1807-1832) assigned  Cumberland House (1820-1832) he married Betsy Indian woman (1787-1847) likely at Cumberland House
        (II)-John Flett, Metis baptized September 9, 1834 at the Rapids, Red River
        (II)-Archibald Flett, Metis baptized September 9, 1834 at the Rapids, Red River
        (II)-James Flett, Metis baptized September 9, 1834 at the Rapids, Red River
        (II)-Sally Flett, Metis baptized June 30, 1835 at the Rapids, Red River

Moose Factory birth (II)-Hannah Hardesty, Metis daughter (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) employed HBC (1817-1861) to (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1976); married 1845 Walter Faries Metis (1807-1881).

William D. Johnstone employed NWC (1820-1821) HBC (1821-1822) in Athanasca then retired to Canada.

(I)-William Fletcher Lane (1794-1863) an Irishman joined NWC (1820-1821) & HBC (1821-1863) assigned English River (1821-1823) assigned Ottawa River (1823-1824) fired, hired (1829-1832) Lake of two mountains, assigned New Caledonia (1832-1845), assigned MacKenzie River (1846-1854), assigned Albany (1855-1863) married 1846 (IV)-Metis daughter of (III)-Simon McGillivray Metis Jr (1790/96-1832) son (II)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) and Susan Cree
    (II)-Simon Lane Metis
    (II)-Joseph Lane Metis   

Julie Larence, Metis, b-1820 on the plains of the N.W.T. daughter Bazil Larence, b-1789/95 Berthier, Quebec and Agathe Michel L'Iroquoise, b-1812/25 Slave Lake: married 1832/38 Fort Carlton, Saskatchewan, Isaac Daigneault, Metis b-1807 Fort Edmonton, son Richard Daigneault & Josephite Frontier, Metis; Richard 2nd married before 1817, Lisette Bernard. 

(I)-William Leith b-1778/84 employed by HBC at Norway House, (1820-1821) then retired to Red River, married Elizabeth Spence Metis b-1777 daughter James Spence and Indian woman.
    (II)-William Leith Metis bapt 1826
    (II)-Peter Leith Metis bapt 1829
    (II)-James Leith Metis bapt 1831
    (II)-Thomas Leith Metis bapt 1834
    (II)-Joseph Leith Metis bapt 1836
    (II)-Elizabeth Leith Metis b-1840
    (II)-Mary Leith Metis b-1845

(I)-Daniel Lillie aka (Lilley, Lilly & Lily) (1780-1858) employed HBC (1820-1834) 
1st married Moose Factory one or more Indian women . 
    (II)-Betsy Lillie Metis bapt 1834
    (II)-William Lillie Metis b-1834
    (II)-Nancy (Ann) Lottie Metis bapt 1835 Red River 
    (II)-Unnamed Metis daughter bapt 1837 Red River 
2nd marriage Red River Mary Anne Richards Metis (1812-1847)
    (II)-Jane Lollie Metis bapt 1840 Red River
    (II)-James Lillie Metis bapt 1842 Red River 
    (II)-John George Lillie Metis bapt 1847 Red River 
    (II)-Marie Anne Lillie Metis bapt 1847 Red River 

Stephen Long went up the Platte River and came back through Oklahoma on the Canadian River.  He agreed with Zebulon Pike (1806) that the Great Plains would serve as a barrier to keep American people from wandering too far and stretching the nation too thin, otherwise most of it is worthless.  It is almost entirely unfit for cultivation and, of course, uninhabitable by people who depend on agriculture for their subsistence.  It was he who labeled the Great Plains as "The Great American Desert", and the name stuck for the short term.   

Etienne Lucier born St. Edouard, Montreal, Quebec came to the Willamette Valley near Oregon City.  He had been in the area since 1812 having arrived as part of Astor's great venture to establish a branch of the Pacific Fur Company at the mouth of the Columbia River.

Duncan Campbell born 1802, baptised 1802? died December 5, 1847 Mendota who married Penichon a Dakota/French Metis woman. He is trading on the Minnesota River and acting as interpreter for Taliaferro until 1825.  His daughter married Alexander Faribault, Oliver Cratte, Joseph Buisson and James Wells.  Mark Dulac ggggr grandson James Wells suggests this was:  (I)-Duncan Graham, (not Campbell) b-1772 Scotland, died December 5, 1847. 

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Sophia Hudon  Metis born about 1820 daughter  Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838)  and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married George M. Henderson.  

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Paul H.. Hudon (1820-1897) Metis son  Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838)  and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Mariah.  

Samuel Jackson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived 1826 Mackinac, son Jackson and Angelick Ojibway, b-1800 listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Bound to the mission.

Joseph Lozon, Ottawa Metis, b-1820 Mackinac, son Joseph Lozon, Ottawa Metis, and Nancy Ottawa Metis, b-1806, Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Archibald McDonald married a woman he called Princess Raven and they had at least four children.

(I)-John Lorn McDougall (1800-1860) joined HBC (1820-1836) Lake of Two Mountains married Catherine Cameron 

Donald McKay d-1820 was working Mattawagamingue (Mattagami) Post near Gogama, Ontario.

(III)-Mary McKay, b-1820 Metis daughter (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877/87) and (II)-Harriet Ballenden Metis  (1795/1800-1854):

William McMurray Metis (1820-1877) son Thomas McMurray Metis Jr. (1776-1848) and Jane Cardinalle, joined HBC (1838-1877) Athabasca, MacKenzie River, Red River, English River etc.  married twice, children not recorded
1st marriage Anne Ballenden d-1862
2nd marriage 1868 Harriet Inkster

John Mallatt, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, living 1836 Sault Ste. Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descendent of northwest tribe.

James Marreu, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, arrived 1825 Mackinac son Marreu and a squaw (iskwao) (Ojibwa Woman), listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as from west end of Lake Superior.  James was listed 1/4 Metis therefore mother must be a Metis not full blood.  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

Louisa Howlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1820 daughter Louis Nowlin (Nolin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1788 arrived 1812 Sault Ste Marie, married Mary Ojibwa Metis b-1802 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28., 1836 treaty.

Hertel Martin, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820 St. Ignace, son Antoine Martin, Ojibwa Metis and an Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Antoine Morin (1797/1801-1857) from Maskinonge, Montreal, Quebec, joined NWC (1820-1821) English River, HBC (1821-1857) Athabasca to 1839 and then English River to 1857 as interpreter.  It's likely he was a Metis or married a Metis/Indian before joining NWC.
    Louis Morin Metis? b-1810 Maskinonge or he is a brother?
    Antoine Morin Metis b-1820 likely English Riverjoined HBC (1845-1884) English River as interpreter.

Jean Baptiste Moreau, Metis b-1820, Fort Edmonton (Alberta) daughter  Jean Baptiste Moreau French Canadian and Charlotte Lafeville aka (LaFeuille - Gariepy - Vallie - Vallee etc.) Metis. 

Cumberland House Pierre Cyrysologue Pambrun (1792-1841) son Andrew Dominique Pambrun and Angelique Hyracque married Catherine (Kitty) Umfreville, Metis daughter Thomas Umfreville and Cree Woman.  See (Alberta 1823)?

Catherine Payan, Ottawa Metis, b-1820 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Bound to the mission 

(II)-James Peebles Metis Jr. b-1820 Albany son (I)-James Peebles Sr (1778/83-1840) and Ann native, Joined HBC(1832-1844) Albany; married 1842 Albany, Betsy Morrison Metis bapt 1844, daughter James J. Morrison and Indian girl; epouse Thomas Johnson 
    (III)-Andrew Peebles Metis b-1847, bapt 1847
    (III)-John James Peebles Metis bapt 1849, d-1850
    (III)-Francois Peebles Metis b-1850
    (III)-Richard Peebles Metis b-1851

Xavier Perrault, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1820 to 1846.  

John Quincy Adams, this decade, created the term 'Manifest Destiny' to mask a 'World Domination' objective.  He believed the United States would eventually be coextensive with the North American continent, destined by God and Nature to be the most populous and powerful people ever combined into one social contract.  John O'Sullivan in 1845, however, is the first person to publish the term 'Manifest Destiny'.   The invasion and conquest of Texas, New Mexico, Arizonia and California is justified as part of God and Natures Grand Plan.  The Principle of Might is Right allowed the U,S.A. to annex Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.  The central States of Mexico fell by isolation.  The next objective was to clear the lands of Native Peoples.

(I)-George Simpson (1787/92-1860) an illegitimate Scot, son George Simpson d-1860 Lachine near Montreal.  He likely had an inferiority complex because of the nature of his birth and lack of stature.  This might also account for his distain of women.  Joined HBC (1817-1860) sent men he didn't like to New Caledonia (British Columbia)  He established policy that his officers make alliances (country marriages) with important Indian families to improve trade.  In exchange for their daughters, the Indians would have access to supplies from the forts.  Other accounts suggest he forbid his junior men from marrying Indians or Metis unless it was his cast offs of which 6 were known.  The Hudson Bay Company policy was that a man was not legally bound to these relationships when he moved to another post, as there was no longer an economic advantage.  He was however expected to maintain the woman and her Metis children until she was "under the protection of another" or in a new relationship with another man.  The agreement from a H.B.C. perspective was that of a  mistress, concubine not as a wife.  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787/92-1860) an illegitimate Scot, was a vile man when it came to country women.  He referred to them as bits of brown, commodities and brown jugs when he referred to them at all.  He disrespected the customs of the country.  He abandoned his own women with no concern for their feelings and showed only minor concern for his Metis children.  By modern standards he would be considered as a psychopath.  Most of the Men of the North West Company did not endorse this uncivilized H.B.C. policy however many Scottish and English traders followed the example of Simpson.   Some considered him as 'quite mad'.  Others suggest he had an inferiority complex because of his short stature.    
He was described as cold hearted.  The people called him "the Little Emperor".  He wore a top hat and long black coat and had a piper, pipe him into posts.  He took a hard line with the Indian people, their character and nature demanded "a proper state of subordination".  Bottom line he was a repugnant man with morals of an alley cat.  He was a serious bigamist who abandoned wives and children.  That he was knighted speaks loudly about British values concerning authoritarian dictatorship at this time.
He arrived Quebec 1820 and proceeded directly to Athabasca (Alberta).  
He became Governor of Rupert's Land and Columbia District hor HBC.  
He maintained homes in Red River and Lachine, Montreal, Quebec.
He married at least 7 times;  He paradoxically, opposed marriages between other fur traders and Indian or Metis women.
Wife #1 is unrecorded, in Scotland but known abandoned children are:
    (II)-Marie Louisa Simpson  b-1815 Scotland married Donald McTavish
    (II)-Isabella Simpson  b-1817 Scotland  married James Cook Gordon
Wife #2  is (II)-Elizabeth Betsy Sinclair daughter (I)-William Sinclair and Margaret (Nahoway Cree) she was passed off to (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles Sr. (1795-1870) in 1822, wife and daughter was abandoned.
    (II)-Maria Simpson Miles Metis (1822-1838), daughter (II)-Elizabeth; she married Robert Wallace 
Wife #3 goes unrecorded and were also abandoned;
    (II)-James Keith Simpson Metis b-1823
    (II)-Unamed Simpson Metis
Wife #4 is (II)-Maria (Betsey) Miles Metis d-1838 daughter (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles (1795-1870) and Elizabeth Betsay Sinclair Metis (1805-1822), this wife and children were also adandoned.
    (II)-Mary Keith Simpson Metis
    (II)-Ann Foster Simpson Metis
    (II)-Margaret Simpson Metis
Wife #5 about 1826 Margaret Taylor (1810-1816), wife and children were abandoned and he didn't have the common courtesy of telling her he had remarried. 
    (II)-George Stewart Simpson Metis (1827-1894) 
    (II)-John Simpson Metis b-1829
Married his 6th wife about 1830 Cousin Frances Ramsey Simpson (1812-1853) daughter Feddes MacKenzie Simpson and they came to New York, then on to Montreal, then on to Red River (1830-1833).  Non white wives were not welcome in the Simpson household.  This caused great consternation in the Red River des Metis community.  Frances would would discover her husband was a not a very warm and loving personality.  She likely discovered he had many wives and she was no different.  They were forced to relocate to Lachine in 1834, due to harassment by the Metis community.  She soon retreated to England 1840 but returned to Lachine Quebec in 1845 and died there 1853
    (II)-George Geddes Simpson (1831-1832)
    (II)-Francois Webster Fanny Simpson b-1833
    (II)-Augusta D'Este Gussy Simpson b-1841
    (II)-Margaret Mackenzie (Maggie) b-1843
    (II)-unnamed Simpson Metis? daughter, may belong to Lachine girl?
    (II)-unnamed Simpson Metis? daughter, May belong to Lachine girl
Married his 7th wife a Lachine girl 
    (II)-John Henry Pelly Simpson Metis? b-1850

Richard Stevens, b-1793, married 1820, likely Rupert's House, Mary O'Conner, b-1792.

Marguerite Souilliere, Metis, b-1820 daughter Basile Souilliere and Cree Woman; 1st married at Lake Superior Sieur Roussin, and traveled to Fort Vancouver in 1831; 2nd marriage 1833 David Dampierre, this marriage was consecrated at Fort Vancouver in late December 1838.   

Ambrose Surette, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1820 to 1846.  She married May 9, 1862, Fort William, Lalouise Louis.  She is the daughter Charles Louis and Jeanne Visnaw.  Jeanne Visnaw is the daughter of Jean Baptiste Visnaw Sr. and Marguerite Kakwedabodawich.  Lalouise Louis has a brother Charles Louis.  Source Cindy Leutz.

Charles Terrien, Ottawa Metis, b-1820 St. Ignace, son Isaac Terrien and Ottawa Woman (Angelique),  this is second husband, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Pierre Trotier, Ottawa Metis, b-1820 St. Ignace son Francois Trotier, Metis and Ottawa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-Robert Wilson (1799-1864) a shipbuilder joined HBC (1820-1864) York District assigned Saskatchewan District (1822-1828) married 1851 York Factory (II)-Jane Flett Metis daughter (I)-George Fleet (1803-1849) and Catherine
    (II)-Robert Cummins Wilson (1852-1913)

(I)-Thomas Wishart b-1797 Scotland arrived 1819 HBC, married about 1820 Red River Barbara Spence Metis daughter James Spence Jr. and Indian Woman.
    (II)-Jane Wishart Metis (1821-1823)
    (II)-Elizabeth Wishart Metis bapt-1824
    (II)-Soloma Wishart Metis b-1827
    (II)-Jane Wishart Metis bapt 1829
    (II)-James Wishart Metis b-1830 married 1853 Elizabeth Flett b-1834 daughter Peter Flett 
    (II)-Mary Wishart Metis b-1834 married 1857 John McNabb son John McNabb

Battle of Seven Oaks A brass trading coin is minted this year by the North West Company to represent the value of one beaver pelt.  A hole was drilled in the top so that the Indians could wear it as an ornament until they redeemed it at a Company Store.


St. Boniface Cathedral is under construction.  The Cathedral is one hundred feet in length, forty five in breath and forty feet high, with two towers, one hundred feet high, being made entirely of wood.

Francois Gourneau is born 1800 son of Monsieur Garneau born about 1769 and Mother Sioux Se Gaunaux So-Way-Guay, Red Lake Band.  Francois married about 1820 Pembina a Marguerite Martineau born 1805-1809 and on annuity roll #1166 1893 Red Lake.  One child is recorded, Marion Gourneau born 1831 role #1167.

Henry Schoolcraft is reported to have visited Mackinac Island for the first time.

Dr. Charles W.W. Borup traded Michigan this decade.

The American Mountain Men discovered that the Spanish wanted horses and Indian slaves.  James P. Beckwourth recorded one Indian raid that netted 59 wives, mothers and young single girls for the slave trade.  The older women were released.

An estimated 540 Red River carts are counted in the annual bison (buffalo) hunt out of Red River.

The Prairies started a 30 year drought that lasted until the 1850's. 

US census takers on the Virginia-Tennessee boarder at Stone Mountain labeled the local Melungeous as "Free Persons of Color".  The people were of mixed blood neither all Black, nor all White, nor all Indian.  The story of these people was called one of "ethnic cleansing in America".

Many Metis settlements sprung up to serve the fur trade, namely Green Bay (population 337), Prairie Du Chien (population 361), River Raisin (Monroe, Michigan) (near Detroit), Milwaukee, Portage, Butte des Mort and La Pointe to name a few.  These Metis se6tlements were self regulated and the smaller ones were dominated by one Metis family.

February: birth Josephte Moreau, Metis born February 1, 1820 likely N.W.T. daughter  Jean Baptiste Moreau French Canadian and Charlotte Lafeville aka (LaFeuille - Gariepy - Vallie - Vallee etc.) Metis: married to Francois Colombe 

March 1: Norway House, birth (II)-Isabella Kennedy, Metis, baptized October 4, 1820, Norway House daughter (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) and, Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) aka Mary Isbister and Bear (1782-1863), Cree Metis:

March 6:  Missouri was allowed into the Union and was classified as a Slave State.

April 8:   (I)-Thomas Douglas of Selkirk (1771-1820) died in France of tuberculosis, and bankrupt and his grave site slipped into obscurity until recently. Thomas believed to the end that Selkirk Town on the Red River was a success in settling needy Europeans and in providing a haven of refuge for a great body of vagabond Scottish. Others suggest that the number of settlers in Red River as a result of (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820), was very minor when compared to those from the North West Company and to the overwhelming majority called Metis, Bois Brules, Half Breeds or just Gens Libre (Freemen).  (I)-Thomas Douglas of Selkirk (1771-1820) had attempted to establish an illegal self-sustained feudal domain but lacked the intelligence to pull it off.  His colonies in P.E.I. and Upper Canada failed and he created a war at the Red River and Assinboine Rivers.  

June 17: Red River (I)-James Spence of  HBC (1797-1818) married an Indian woman and had 4 Metis children baptized (II)-Robert Spence, (II)-Betsy Spence, (II)-Charlotte Spence, and (II)-Ellen Spence.  On this same day he married (II)-Jane Morwick, Metis  daughter James Morwick, (and native woman) who was the widow of (I)-Oman Norquay (1773-1820) and they had the 5 children baptized (II)-Nancy Norquay, Metis  (II)-William Norquay, Metis (II)-Isabella Norquay, Metis, married John Morwick, (II)-James Norquay, Metis and (II)-John Norquay, Metis, married 1832 Isabella Truthwaite.  (II)-Henry Norquay baptized 1823 married 1st Anne Spence, 2nd married (II)-Mary Monkman, Metis.  James and Jane had a son (II)-Joseph Spence baptized 1826 and a daughter (II)-Catherine Spence baptized 1929.

July 2:  Norway House, birth (II)-Peter Fidler Jr., Metis, son (I)-Peter Fidler Sr (1769-1822) and Mary a Swampy Cree (1771-1826); married Amelia Bird, b-1821..

August 20:   Mackinac, baptism, Lucy Tanner born August 4th on trip from Red River to Kentucky via Mackinac daughter John Tanner born Kentucky and Pier La Sauteuse both living Red River.   Their two other children Martha and James Tanner are likely also baptized at this time.  John was living as an Indian, having been stolen by the Indians many years earlier.  Pier La Sauteuse refused to go on to Kentucky saying she didn't want to live like a white person.  John Tanner and his Metis kids, Martha and James, went on to be reunited with his family in Kentucky.  Martha Tanner died in Kentucky and John and son James returned to Mackinac.  The ending of this story is very tragic.  Pier La Sauteuse Tanner was subjected to intense religious indoctrination, and was convinced that an Indian marriage was not valid and that she is living in sin; subject to the fires of hell.  John refused to join the religion. They had an off and on marriage and two more kids until Pier La Sauteuse (Ojibwa) refused to live as his wife; as their Country Marriage before the Roman God was not recognized by her Church.  John Tanner was believed to have returned to Red River to trade, making enough to retire, then returned to live Sault Ste Marie a broken man.  This was a common theme among the religious zealots of this era. They had no idea of the evil they were spreading among the people. 

September 8:  The marriage of John Bunn (1785-1853) of London and Phoebe Indian (?-1848) at Rock Depot near York Factory is believed the first marriage conducted in Western Canada by an Anglican Clergyman- the Rev. John West d-1845.
The Church of England had dispatched Chaplain John West, d-1845 to Red River to serve the Scottish community.  His objective is to bring civilization, Christianity, education and agriculture to the west.  He declared that Country marriages between a man, a woman and God was immoral and debased.  This philosophy allowed the Scottish men to cast off their Country wives and to treat women as objects for temporary sexual gratification.  John West, d-1845 represented Christian racism.  He would not baptize Country Wives before they married, and would not marry them before they were baptized.  He obviously considered them all heathens beyond redemption.  He was dismissed in 1823 for his tactless comments on the foibles of the Red River society.  His successor, Reverend David Jones, and William Cockran are hard shell divine.  The Rev. John West d-1845 opened a residential school in Red River.

September 20: Cumberland House, birth (II)-Charlotte Holmes, baptized October 4, 1820, Sandy Bar & Jack Head, Winnipeg District, died December 9, 1833, Red River daughter, (I)-John Pocock Holmes (1783-1858) employed HBC (1805-1821) married 1806, Ke-che-cow-e-coot, Metis alias Wee-misti-goos, Metis and Keese-cow-e-cumacoat, Metis or (II)-Betsy Cocking, Metis (1775-1835) daughter (I)-Matthew Cocking (1743-1799), epouse 1798 Fort York (I)-Thomas Stayer (1770-1827):

October 20:  The US paid Spain five million for its expropriation of parts of Florida.

October 20:  Missouri imposed a $1.00 bachelor tax on unmarried men between the age of 21 to 51.

October 20:  Red River marriage (I)-Thomas Halcro(w) the elder, (1781-1856) employed HBC (1804-1824 as a blacksmith, married to Mary a Southward Indian who was baptized same day.  The were likely country married pre 1818 York Factory.

October 20:  Red River baptism of the following children of  (I)-Thomas Halcro(w) the elder, (1781-1856) and Mary a Southward Indian
    (II)-Thomas Halcrow, Metis, baptized October 25, 1820, married January 21, 1836, Charlotte Knight
    (II)- Euphemia Halcrow, Metis, baptized October 25, 1820, married November 27, 1834, Peter Flett 
    (II)-Mary Halcrow, Metis, baptized October 25, 1820, d-1847
    (II)-Joseph Halcrow, Metis baptized June 6, 1824.
    (II)-Barbara Halcrow, Metis, baptized October 31, 1824, married December 8, 1842, William Work
    (II)-James Halcrow, Metis, baptized December 10, 1826, d-before 1856
    Jame an adopted son baptized October 1, 1844, d-1847 

November 20:  Red River, marriage (II)-James Whitford, Jr. Metis son (I)-James Peter Whitford Sr. and Sarah Indian: married Mary Spence 

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