The British Government renews the Hudson Bay Company lease of Canada for another twenty-one years.

Half or mixed blood of the Chippewa (Ojibwa) to be considered as Chippewa




  METIS HISTORY 1848-1849

METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1800-1849 index




MacKenzie said the Mark of Cain is upon all born in Canada (Indian and Metis).
The Hudson Bay Company is unwilling to take natives- even as apprentice clerks..

Selkirk's heirs sold their rights to Red River back to the Hudson Bay Company.



Margaret La Oine Allore, Ojibwa Metis, at Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected not in the country.

Mrs. Elizabeth T. Bird, Ottawa Metis, living Green Bay listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as living Green Bay last 11 years.

Hester Boutwell, Ojibwa Metis, living Leech Lake, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as living west of Mississippi.

Fort Pelly, Swan River, birth Elizabeth Brass, Metis daughter Peter Brass Sr. Metis, b-1794 Hudson Bay, and Susan Roy or Comtois, Metis.  Other undated births include William Brass, Metis, Therese Brass, Metis and Thomas Brass, Metis.  

Peter Calder a native/Metis of Columbia District employed HBC (1826-1852) is posted (1836-1838) York Factory.  He abandoned his first wife and child likely in Columbia District.

Esabelle Chabeau, Ottawa Metis, b-February, 1836, Grand River, daughter , Louis Chebeau, Ottawa Metis and Elizabeth Chebeau, Ottawa Metis, b-1806 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as born since treaty.

Charles Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1821, living 1836 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descendent of a Canadian tribe.

Louis Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1823, living 1836 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descendent of a Canadian tribe.

Mary Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1825, living 1836 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descendent of a Canadian tribe.

Angelique Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1828, living 1836 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descendent of a Canadian tribe.

Thomas Campbell, Metis born about 1836/37 died before 1855 Upper Mississippi District son Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman; married Dakota woman.

Benjamin Cloutier, Ojibwa Metis, son Benjamin Cloutier, Ojibwa Metis, b-1807, arrived 1828 Mackinac and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Terence Constin, Ojibwa/Ottawa Metis, b-January 1836 St. Ignace son George Constin, Ottawa Metis, b-1814, St. Ignace, and Ojibwa Metis b-1814 St. Ignace, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Sophia Corbin, Ojibwa Metis, b-1815, arrived January, 1836 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected sister Margaritta Stevens, Ojibwa Metis b-1810, came into the district in July.

(I)-William Corston d-1898, joined HBC (1836-1893) assigned Rupert's River (1836-1854), Eastman, Albany, moose retired Eastman in Rupert River.  Married Margaret MacKay Metis d-1902
    (II)-William Corston Metis (1850-1903) born Fort George, Rupert's River, married 1897 Jane Louittit
    (II)-John Corston Metis (1854-1947) born Little White River, married Sarah Mark
            (III)-John Corston
    (II)-Mary Corston Metis (1850-1938) married 1870 Angus Faries Metis (1840-1900)
    (II)-Margaret Corston Metis married 1896 John Iserhoff
    (II)-Jane Corston Metis b-1862 Fort George, married 1889 James Morrison
            Edward Morrison? Metis b-1879
            William Morrison Metis 
    (II)-James Corston Metis b-1864 Martin Falls married 1895 Emily Elison
    (II)-Louisa Corston Metis 

Sault Saint Marie, birth Josette Davieaux, Metis the daughter Hyacinthe Davieaux b-1805 married Charlotte Misay, likely Sault Saint Marie after 1830 a first marriage 1829 to Piquette or Josette Pellerin, likely Sault Ste Marie; married December 21, 1857, Louis Cadreau, son Thomas Cadreau and Isabelle Clermont; 2nd married February 19, 1863, Marianne Cadotte.   source Monique Daviau and Rhonda

Mary Ann Durette, Ottawa Metis, of Grand River, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as on Indian list.

(I)-James Franks (1813-1885) joined HBC (1836-1841) Red River, working on a experimental farm 1837 which was abandoned in 1841.  Married 1st Justina d-1855, 
    (II)-Charles Franks
    (II)-Rupert Franks b-1836
2nd married 1855, Sarah Flett (1832-1909)

Mary Genereux, Ottawa Metis, of Grand River, married a trader who is now dead, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as on Indian list by her own choice.

Miles Goodyear (1817-1849), a mountain man is claimed to be the first settler in Ogden, Salt Lake Valley, Mexican Territory (Utah).  It was said he didn't like missionaries, Hudson Bay Men or Indians but he married 1839 Pomona Ute daughter Pe-teet-neet a Ute.  

Lake Nipissing birth (II)-George Hardesty, Metis son (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) employed HBC (1817-1861) and (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1876)

(I)-James Joseph Harrold joined HBC (1836-1847) assigned MacKenzie River 1837-1841) then York District, married 1847 York (I)-Nancy Grives Metis daughter (I)-James Grive (1797-1875).  He returned home taking his wife.

(I)-Joseph Kirton (1810-1891) joined HBC (1836-1841 settler Red River 1841.  
1st married Susanna (1810-1843) Indian or Metis
   (II)-George Kirton Metis b-1835, bapt-1843
    (II)-James Kirton Metis bapt-1838, d-1843
    (II)-Peter Kirton Metis b-1837, bapt 1840 married Elizabeth (Busby or Brochet) Boucher Metis (1841-1874)
    (II)-Mary Ann bapt-1842 married 1860, Joseph William Good 
    (II)-Susanna Joyce bapt 1843+ married 1862 Richard Cook d-1865
        James Roderick bapt 1864 son Richard Cook & Jesse
2nd marriage 1847 Catherine Lyon (Cook) Metis  bpt 1826 widow of Cook & Lyons?, daughter Joseph Cook Metis (1788-1848)
    (II)-William Kirton Metis

Alexis L'Amerandeau, Ottawa Metis, b-1836, Grand River, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as too young born since treaty. 

Jean Baptiste Larance, Metis, b-1836, son Bazil Larence b-1789/95 and Agathe Michel L'Iroquoise; married Josephte Hamelin, b-1839

Charlotte La Roc, Metis, living Detroit, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as lives outside district.

Andrew La Roque Metis b-1836 Pembina seen on Minnesotia River living Wisconsin 1871

Therese Larriviere Metis b-1836 Lake Superior Chippewan sister of John La Pointe but Metis script rejected 1871 Wisconsin

(I)-Archibald McDonald (1836-1915) joined HBC (1854-1911) Swan River married 1863 Helen (Ellen) Inkster, they had 4 sons 2 daughters

Edward McGillivray Metis b-1816 Indian Country, son William McGillivray Metis and Cree Indian woman, .joined HBC (1836-1874) assigned (1836-1838)  Esquimaux Bay (New Foundland) assigned (1839-1842) Athabasca; (1843-1847) McKenzier River; 1849-1857) Cumberland: (1858-1874) Saskatchewan River Jack Fish Lake, Lac la Biche and Lesser Slave lake   Brothers Montrose Metis (1822-1850) and Napoleon Metis (1825-1906) and mot of family worked Columbia District.

 Margaret, a native woman, wife of (I)-Allen McDonnell (1778-1859) and two daughters are boarding at Red River, placed there by Sir. George Simpson. 

The McKay family moved from the Fort Edmonton region to Kildonan, Red River some time between 1836 and 1840. 

(II)-James McKay (1828-1879), a Metis, is born at Fort Edmonton son (I)-James McKay Sr. of Sutherlandshire, Scotland a Hudson Bay Company steerman from 1816 to 1840 and Margaret Gladu, daughter of Charles Gladu and Margaret Ross.

George McKenzie Metis (1840-1918) born New Brunswick House, joined HBC (1856-1908) eastern Region to James Bay retired Red River.

John McLean noted about 40 Iroquois and half-breeds (Metis) are employees at McLeod Post.

John Mallatt, Ojibwa Metis, b-1820, living 1836 Sault Ste. Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as descendent of northwest tribe.

Mary Maisa, Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as a child of Muskego parentage.

Margaret Moran, Ojibwa Metis, resident Grand River, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as decendent from Lac du Flambeau Indians.

Alexis Nault Metis b-1815 Ruperts Land or (1822-1867) son Amable Nault and Marie Josette Lagimodiere b-1810, joined HBC (1838-1857) as a bowsman out of Red River then became a free trader; this is likely the man who married 1845 Fort Edmonton Angelique Branbant Metis b-1828 daughter Augustin Brabant and Amgelique Lucer b-1847 or bapt? Lac Ste Anne 
    Juliet Naut b-1848 Fort Edmonton 1st mattied 1863 St Albert Benjamin Bellerose born 1842 Slave Lake d-1870; 2nd marriage 1873 St. Albert Michael Plante b-1851 Fort Pitt, (Saskatchewan)

Father Provencher brought chickens from Sault Ste Marie and Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi to the Red River to improve the breeding stock for all the district, as there were few chickens in the area. 

George Rose native or Metis from Hudson Bay joined HBC (1836-1875) Ruperts & Albany Rivers, married Sally daughter Commutchaipi

Cuthbert Sinclair Metis (1836-1900) joined HBC (1864-1900) married Mary Jane and had 10 children including
    Thomas Andrew Metis b-1878

(II)-Rupert Spenser Metis (1836-1915) born Eastman, Ruperts River son (I)-John Hodges Spenser (1790-1881) and (II)-Anne Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) Joined HBC (1848-1863) married 1863 Mary Ann Ross. five children are recorded:
    (III)-Annabella Spenser Metis b-1865 St Catherines, married William Naylor
    (III)-William Rupert Spenser Metis b-1868
    (III)-Mary Emma (Minerva) Spenser Metis b-1870
    (III)-Alice Mary Spenser Metis b-1872 Toronto
    (III)-Florence Spenser Metis b-1877 Toronto married W. Spittal

(I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) employed HBC (1812-1865), married 1st. about 1815, (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown, Metis daughter (I)-Joseph Brown (1772-1818) and Elizabeth Indian or Metis; 2nd marriage about 1836, Betsy Hister Indian or Metis; 3rd wife married August 4, 1840, Frances Robinson (1821-1876) daughter John Robinson of Michipicoten  (Northern Ontario) and Indian woman.  William spent his adult life at Moose, so he likely married his three wives there and had his children there. 

Narcissa Prentice Whiteman of Vancouver, Washington wrote to her brother Weld to fill his pockets with peaches, plums, and pear seeds also some broom corn seeds.  She noted that she had previously brought an assortment of seeds from Cincinnati.

Red River was becoming more drawn towards the American economic sphere, as they developed their steamer, rail and postal service to St. Paul, Chippewa Country on the Mississippi River.  

The American Congress created the Wisconsin Territory and admitted Michigan to the Union.

About 139 men died at the Battle of the Almo defending against Mexico.  Davy Crocket (1786-1836) died in this battle as did James Bowie (1796-1836), famous for the Bowie knife, he died sick in bed during the battle.

The proposed 1836 treaty to the Ottawa and Chippewa, by the Unites States Government, proposed four classes of people in the Lake Superior region.  The Indians are desirous of making provisions for their half-breed (Metis)  relatives.  The President is determined that individual reservations shall not be granted, but a fund of $150,000 will be established.  Three classes of claimants, the first of which shall receive one-half more than the second, and the second, double the third.  Those from Sault Ste Marie to sign are Jawba Wadiek, Waub Ogeeg and Kawgayosh.

John Macallum took over operations of the Red River Boarding School. He instituted a new system of sadistic discipline, based on the best Schools of Britain, that he claimed invigorates both the body and mind of the pupil and implants and cherishes habits which will be of essential service in active life. Macallum was considered as a stern, red wigged, snuff-taking man, who kept by his desk, a finger-sized native brown willow stick about three and a half feet long with which to trash the children. Life under Macallum was as bitter as Egyptian slavery. This analogy to the Egyptians is based on inaccurate information but still makes a powerful statement of tyrannical power.  The Reverend John Macallum, born about 1807, the teacher of some 14 girls under age 16, married one of his students, Elizabeth Charles, daughter Chief Factor John Charles b-1784.

Washington Irving's Astoria documents his observations of the St. Louis, Missouri region Metis:   The dress of these people is generally half civilized, half savage.  They wear a capot or surcoat, made of a blanket, striped cotton shirt, cloth trousers, or leathern leggings, moccasins of deer-skin, and a belt of variegated worsted, from which are suspended the knife, tobacco-pouch, and other implements.  The lives of the voyageurs are passed in wild and extensive roving, in the service of individuals, but more especially of the fur trades.  They are generally of French descent and inherit much of the gaiety and lightness of heart of their ancestors, being full of anecdote and song, and ever ready for the dance.  They inherit too, a fund of civility and complaisance; and instead of that hardness and grossness which men in laborious life are apt to indulge towards each other, they are mutually obliging and accommodating; interchanging kind office, yielding each other assistance and comfort in every emergency, and using the familiar appellations of cousin and brother when there is in fact no relationship.  Their natural good-will is probably heightened by a community of adventure and hardship in their precarious and wandering life.  We are talking of things fast fading away.  The race of Canadian Voyagers, their glory is departed.  They are no longer the lords of our internal seas, and the great navigators of the wilderness.

Texas became an independent Republic.

January 2: Red River, baptism (III)-Jane Gunn, Metis daughter (II)-William Gunn, Metis (1822-1842) son (I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878) employed HBC (1813-1822) out of York Factory; married a half-breed woman before 1821 York Factory and 2nd marriage January 17, 1826, Image Plains, (III)-Margaret Swain, Metis, daughter (II)-James Swain, Metis (1799-1887) and Margaret Racette b-1809.

February:  Mackinac, birth Charles Fontaine, Ojibwa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as only 1/8 Indian blood and too young.

February:  About 180 rebel Texans captured the Alamo, a Roman Catholic Mission, and rebelled against Mexican Authority in this Mexican region.

March 6:  General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna with an army of several thousand surrounded the 180 Texas rebels in the Alamo Catholic Mission.  He offered the outlaws an opportunity it surrender, which they refused.  The battle only lasted 90 minutes before the rebels were killed.  It is noteworthy to remember that Texas was a territory of Mexico.

March 27:  After a day and 1/2 of intense fighting Colonel Gannin and 342 men surrendered to General Jose Urrea of the Mexican army.  The men were imprisoned at Goliad, Texas and were executed by firing squad on orders of General Santa Anna.  It was the single largest loss of life in the invasion of Mexico.  This is twice as many as were killed at the Alamo.

March 28:  The following is a census of a Metis person who resided at Sault Ste. Marie, Mackinac, St. Ignace, and the Grand River Valley of southern Michigan.  In addition to being related by blood to the Ottawa and Ojibwa who ceded land in the treaty, the mixed-blood person had to reside within the area ceded.  Those persons not living in the area, or living in the area but not related by blood to the Ottawa and Chippewa ceding the land, are not listed:

Allore, Arnois, Ashman, Badeau, Bailley, Baird, Barry, Batchford, Bayard, Bazallette, Beaubien, Beauchamp, Beaudeau, Beauresau, Belonger, Bennet, Benois, Benwain, Edward Biddle, Sophia Biddle, Bingham, Blanchard, Boadwine, Boide, Bodre, Bongo, Bostwick, Bouchard, Bouresau, Bousha, Boushay, Boutwell, Boyd, Bradley, Brisbois, Burkhart, Charles Butterfield, Cadotte, Cameron, Campbell, Carbenau, Carow, Champaigne, Chapman, Charbeneau, Chebau, Cheveaux, Chindley, Chorrette, Clermont, Cloutier, Collins, Constin, Contwa, Elizabeth Cook, Corbin, Cotwin, Cowles, Cross, Crow, Curtiss, Daigno, Joseph Daily, Dauphiny, Davenport, Davis, Decotau, Desnoyer, Dingley, Dolly, Dousman, John A. Drew, Dubey, Ducamp, Dufault, Durette, Duverney, Edwards, Ely, Enos, Ermatinger, Farley, Farling, Felix, Fisher, Folsome, Fontaine, Frariot, Genereux, Gesson, Gibson, Gornor, Gothier, Goust, Graham, Grant, Graveaet, Gronda, Gullee, Augustin Hamblin (Hamelin) Jr. , John Holiday, Mary Holiday, Hubert, Jackson, Jeaudron, Jellee, Jeroiux, Johnston, Jones, King, La Branche, La Butte, La Croix, La Fond, Joseph Lafrombois, La Guthrie, La Pierre, La Roc, La Sieur, Henry A. Levake, La Viritie, L'Amerandau, Lacoy, Lapelle, Lapine-Allore, Lasaw, William Lasley, Laudre, Lawrence, Le Cuyer, Le May, Lese, Lore, Louisignon, Lozon, Mallatt, Marcia, Daniel Marsac, Martin, Mataw, Maville, May, Mcclure, McDonald, McGulphin, McMurray, McNinch, Mero, Miniclear, Mitchell, Montrielle, George Moran, Louis Moran, Morris, Nichols, Nontroit, Nowlin, Oakes, Ojibway, Paladeau, Paspater, Paquin, Payan, Peck, Pelkey, Pelotte, Peltier, Perunet, Piquette, Plante, Poisson, Ponds, Razette, Read, Luther Rice, Rix Robinson, Rodd, Rolau, Romaine, Rosay, Rosseau, Rowland, Schermerhorn, Schoolcraft, Shaw, Leonard Slater, Smith, Snaickell, Sovay, Stevens, St. Onge, St. Pierre, Sulyar, Sylvester, Tanner, Taylor, Terdiff, Terrier, Thurston, Tromble, Troteschaud, Joseph Trotier, Trudell, Viencourt, Vincecount, Warren, Wells, Willard, G.D. Williams, Yarns.

Catherine Ely, Metis, lives Lake Superior, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected lives outside the District. (I suspect she later qualified for it but I don't have my notes here. Same with Hester Crooks Boutwell.))  Catherine Ely was the daughter of a voyageur called Goulay or Goulais. She attended the Mackinaw Mission and was given the name Catherine Bissell for the daughter of a donor to the mission, Josiah Bissell. She left the mission at Mackinaw to teach in the missions at Michigan Territory in present Wisconsin. Catherine married Edmund F. Ely, a teacher at Fond du Lac, on St. Louis River. They had 13 children but not all lived. The couple were also stationed at Pokegama ("Pokegumma," other spellings) on the Snake River in the 1830s and 40s. Mrs. Ely is not listed in the census in the 1840s, but her husband and children are, probably because she was Metis, not "white." Apparently she attempted to get recognition and an annuity through the treaty but was turned down.  The missionaries were very poor and the mission was failing. They were living with the St. Croix Band or Snake River Band, not the northern bands. Mrs. Ely served as translator for her husband and taught school in some places. Eventually they moved to Oneota near Duluth, then to Santa Rosa, California. (source Mrs. Bryan)

Francois DuFault Sr. b-1796 1/2 Chippew (Metis) at Sault Ste Marie 1836 census
    Francois DuFault Jr 1/4 Chippew (Metis) b-1821
    Mary Ann DeFault 1/4 Chippew (Metis) b-1822
    Genevieve DuFault 1/4 Chippew (Metis) b-1829
Pierre DuFault b-1815 1/2 Chippew (Metis) at Sault Ste Marie 1836 census

March 28:  Mackinac, Mary Ann Willard, Metis is rejected treaty as descended from Lake Superior Indians, eg. not Michigan Indian. 

This season is very dry on the prairies.  The resulting fires drove off the animal population, and this resulted in widespread starvation among the People. 

May 4:   Thomas Douglas Selkirk's heirs sold the Assiniboine back to the Hudson Bay Company without consulting the inhabitants, selling their lands which were never purchased nor paid for by the Selkirks.  This single move created deep seated resentments within the Metis Nation.  The Company did not know how to administer law and order.  The Company's decisions to funnel trade to the Hudson Bay and Britain and to discriminate against the employment of Metis or Canadians, forced the Metis to conduct trade into Saint Paul and thereby establish cultural ties with the Americans.  It is noteworthy that St. Paul is a Metis dominated culture.  The Companies negative attitude towards colonization throughout its history did not work to the benefit of Canada.  The fear was growing in some peoples minds that the Hudson Bay Company had lost the Oregon Territory and were in the process of losing British Columbia, Red River, and maybe the entire West.   

May 22: James Bird, Metis near Fort Hall, near Snake River on the Oregon trail entered into trade with Antoine Godin a Iroquois Indian with the N.W.C. when a Blackfoot shot Antoine dead. 

May 30: Red River, baptised (II)-David Mowat, Metis son (I)-Edward Mowat aka Moad (1778-1862) and Mary Indian 

June 12:  Red River, baptism, (II)-Flora Foulds, Metis, daughter, (I)-Samuel Foulds (Folds, Foldes) (1803-1870) to Nancy (Ann & Anne) Calder, Metis (1803-1896); married 1854 Angus McKay

June 26:  Fort Union, Missouri River, Montana,  a sub-fort 200 yards from the main fort contained a family named Deschamp, consisting of a mother, three sons and two daughters and an uncle, the father having been killed in a quarrel the previous year by a half-breed (Metis).  The male members of this family were desperadoes of the first order, quarrelsom, vindictive and being united in all their difficulties had made themselves a general terror.  A Half-Breed (Metis)  named Jack Ram Kipling, Metis (1788-1836) was killed by Deschamps.  Kenneth McKenzie at once determined upon their complete extermination.  Sixty white's and a dozen Half Breeds surrounded the fort.  A small cannon was used and the first to fall was the elder Dechamp.  A Half-Breed (Metis) named Brazeau shot one of the Deschamp brothers and the mother of the dead Deschamp appeared at the gate, and while appealing for mercy was shot down.  One Half-Breed (Metis) of the attacking party showed himself and was killed.  The Fort was finally fired and driven by the heat the two Deschamp girls departed the fort and were allowed to to pass unharmed.  The remaining Deschamp brothers perished in the flames.  

August:  (I)-Joseph (Jean) Nicolas Nicollet (1786-1843) a Frenchman on the Mississippi at Rapids of the Little Falls discovered hieroglyphics that were interpreted by Chagobay, an Ojibwa, as recording the death of a Metis Chief ,Victor, brother of Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846), Metis, of Lac qui Parle, being ambushed by the Ojibwa on his way back from St. Peters.  Victor was leading a Dakota war party against the Ojibwa in 1833.

September 4, 1836 census lists the Sault Ste Marie Gornow clan as follows:

Louis Gornow         age 46 1/2 blood living Sault Ste Marie since 1826
Archange Cadotte   age 38 1/4 blood living Sault Ste Marie since 1806 (wife)
John Gornow          age 15 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie
Lennet Gornow       age 13 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie
Simon Gornow        age 11 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie
Edward Gornow     age  9 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie
Archange Gornow  age  8 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie
Charlotte Gornow   age  6 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie
Eli Gornow             age  4 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie
Polly Gornow         age  1 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie

The five eldest children are not listed and are assumed to be living in La Pointe, Wisconsin at this time, with their mother Say-Shaw-Ne-Nie, daughter of Se Ranze.  The family is listed as a third class half-breed (Metis), likely due to the desertion of his first family at La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Some other 'G' names on the census include Gandia, Gauthier, Genereaux, Gounnon, Goslin, Goddin, Grigneu, and Grignen.

Sault Ste. Marie
Sault Ste Marie looking South This painting by George Catlin represents a view from the Canadian side of Sault Ste Marie, looking across the river to Fort Brady. Click on the picture to see a larger picture but it will take a minute to load.
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March 28:  Washington in the District of Columbia, Treaty with the Ottawa and Chippewa Nations.

The Indians are desirous of making provision for their half-breed (Metis) relatives, and the President having determined, that individual reservations shall not be granted.

The Ottawas and Chippewas, feeling a strong consideration for aid rendered by certain of their half-breeds (Metis) on Grand River, and other parts of the country ceded, and wishing to testify their gratitude assigned:

Rix Robinson, Metis, in lieu of a section of land on the Grand River rapids allocated $36/acre.
Leonard Slater, Metis, in lieu of a section of land above said rapids allocated in trust for Chiminonoquat $10/acre
John A. Drew, Metis, in lieu of 1 3/4 section to his Indian family at Cheboigan rapids at $4/acres.
Edward Biddle, Metis, in lieu of one section to his Indian family at the fishing ground, at $3/acre.
John Holiday, Metis, in lieu for 5 sections, at $1.25/acre.
Elizabeth Cook, Sophia Biddle and Mary Holiday, one section each at $2.50/acre.
Augustin Hamelin, jr. Metis, two sections at $1.25/acre.
William Lasley, Metis, Joseph Daily, Metis, Joseph Trotier, Matis, Henry A. Levake, two sections each for their Indian families at $1.25/acres.
Luther Rice, Metis, Joseph Lafrombois, Metis, Charles Butterfield, Metis, Charles Butterfield, Metis, being of Indian descent and to George Moran, Louis Moran, G.D. Williams for haslf-breed children under their care and to Daniel Marsac, for his Indian child, one section each at $1.25/acre.

September 3:  Cedar Point, Fox River, near Green Bay, in the Territory of Wisconsin, Treaty with the Menomonie Nation.

Relinquish all rights and provisions of the treaty of 1831 and 1832.
The Indians are desirous of making provision for their mixed blood relatives, and friends 

October :  The Stony Indians informed J.P. Pruden, Chief Trader at Carlton House, that a rampaging prairie fire was moving rapidly towards the Trading Post. The warning and the cool headed Fort personnel saved the Post.

November 29: Red River, baptism (II)-John Peebles, Metis, b-Albany died May 25, 1846 son (I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) and Native woman,

November 29: Red River, baptism (II)-Eleanor (Ellen) Peebles, Metis, b-Albany, daughter (I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) and Native woman, married December 19, 1850 John Linklater

November 29: Red River, baptism (II)-Sophia Peebles, Metis b-1826, likely Albany daughter (I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) and Native woman, married November 20, 1845, William Thomas b-1824, a Cree Indian, more likely a Cree Metis.

November 29: Red River, baptism (II)-Sutherland Peebles, Metis, b-Albany son (I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) and Native woman, married 1850, Ellen

November 29: Red River, baptism (II)-Robert Peebles, Metis  son (I)-James Peebles (1778/83-1840) and Native woman,

December 10:   (II)-John Ballenden b-1812, accountant at York Factory, married Sarah McLeod Metis daughter of Chief Factor Alexander Roderick McLeod at Red River. Sarah was a student of the infamous Red River Boarding School.

December 18; Red River, baptism (II)-Harry Brown, Metis son (I)-Henry Brown, b-1799, Orkney and Isabella Slater b-1806, Metis

December 22; Red River  baptism/birth (III)-Francois Whitford, Metis son (II)-James Whitford, Jr. Metis and Mary Spence; 

December 27: Red River, birth (III)-Alexander Birston, Metis son (II)-Alexander Birston, Metis (1805-1869) and Betsy Atkinson d-1839


The Committee of Vigilance of Upper Canada is formed with W.L. MacKenzie as agent and secretary.  Its purpose is to form a Provisional Government for Upper Canada.

Birth Michel Arquette, Metis son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) born September 1, 1797 Montreal, son Michel Arquette and Marie Louis Gaudry; married 1839 Vancouver, B.C.  Marguerite Waponte died October 1870.

James Pierson Beckwourth (1798-1866) son of Irish & English stock and an African born Mucatto Woman.  He married a BHlackfoot Woman but left as the employee of the American Fur Company this year.

Angus Bethune (1783-1858) of NWC (1804-1821) Partner and HBC (1824-1832) Chief Factor,  Lake Superior (1824-1836), Chief Factor La Cloche, Lake Huron, retired to Toronto.

Red River, birth (II)-Curtis James Bird, Metis (1837-1876) son  (I)-James Bird (1773-1856), and Mary Kelly Lowman (1801-1873) Metis or Indian, 

Toussaint Charbonneau (1767-1843) is believed to have five wives all age 16 or younger.  This year he married an Assiniboine girl age 14, he was 70 yrs old.  Others suggest he was born 1759 making him 78.  He was also known as a rapist of a Saulteux girl, not a nice person.
Recorded children include:
Toussaint Charbonneau
Metis Jr. by unnamed Indian Girl, could be Janey's child or Otter girl's child??
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau Metis (1805-1885) son Sacagawea
Lizette Charbonneau Metis b-1825 daughter Janey Sakakawea a Shoshone girl and Sacagawea sister

Moose Factory, NWT, birth Louisa Cooper, daughter, Thomas Cooper (a Scot) and Catherine Thomas; married Thomas Anderson, Metis, born June 28, 1835, Red River.  

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Elizabeth Hudon Metis daughter  Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838)  and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Gustave Borup.  

Josephte Gagnon born 1837c Manitoba (MB7-314).

Antoine Goudin Metis born Rupert's Land joined HBC (1837-1862) York, Saskatchewan mostlt Fort Edmonton married Marie Blondeau and 2nd Francoise Boucher Metis b-1814

Mrs. Anna Jameson visited Sault Ste Marie and classified it as little more than an Indian Village.

Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872) of the U.S. and Sir Charles Wheatstone simultaneously claimed to have invented the telegraph.  The inventor, however, is physicist Joseph Henry (1797–1878), as was proven in court.  In 1831 he constructed the first practical electromagnetic telegraph.

Pierre Bottineau, Metis (1810/17-1895), and wife Genevieve Laurence departed Red River for Fort Snelling (St. Paul, Minnesota) in the employ of General Henry Hastings Sibley as guide and interpreter.  Bottineau, being a Metis is considered a second class citizen.  Bottineau is land cleared from Fort Snelling, along with his brother Severe Bottineau, b-1814 Red River, and other Canadian Metis are moved down stream to Pig,s Eye (St. Paul) near Fountain Cave.  In 1840 the army would again drive the settlers off their land a few more miles downstream.  

Red River, baptism, (III)-Sophia Fidler, Metis daughter (II)-Charles Fidler, Metis b-1798 and likely Metis or Indian girl.

Gabriel Franchere (1786-1863) of the American Fur Company located at Sault Ste Marie, wrote that the reason for the long passage is owing to an accident on the Ottawa River. They broke one canoe, drowned one man, and had to run back to Fort Colonge for other canoes and provisions that they procured from Sicought (Silveright?). They then lost eight men by desertion. This could be the reason Gabriel is replaced next year.

York Factory, birth (II)-Charles George Gladman, Metis (1837-1858) son (II)-George Gladman Jr. Metis (1800-1863) employed HBC (1814-1853) and (II)-Harriet Vincent, Metis b-1798, epouse 1810, David Ramsey Stewart

Indiana, birth 1837 or 1845? Francis Lafontaine Metis son Francois Topeah Lafontaine b-1810 and Catherine Pocongoqliah Richardville (1812-1850) Metis

(I)-Richard Lane (1816-1877) worked HBC (1837-1845) York Factory and Red River, then HBC (1845-1852) Columbia District.  He was a judge in Vancouver, was charged with mismanagement and suicides at the Dallas.  He married June 13, 1846 Red River, (II)-Mary McDermott Metis (1816/17-1851) daughter (I)-Andrew McDermot (1783-1881) or more likely (1794-1881) and native woman who was baptised 1832.  Some claim Andrew was a descended from an Irish king?  Two children are recorded:
    (II)-Jean Andre Lane Metis b-1847
    (II)-Marie Lane Metis b-1849
December 6, 1858 in Olympia married Mrs. Anne Gardiner

James La Roque Metis b-1837 Prairie du Chieu living between Pembina and Red Lake son  Josephine Gouger

(I)-Duncan McRae (1818-1898) joined HBC 1837-1842) Red River, married 1842 (II)-Charlotte Smith (1825-1895) daughter (I)-William Smith b-1807 and (I)-Sarah Ann.  I have included the English children because many McRae changed their named to just Rae and this might help in tracing ancestors as most second generation McRae or Rae were Metis and gave their children the same names..
(II)-Mary Ann, Sarah, Alexander, Catherine, John, Charlotte, Duncan, Elizabeth, Malcolm, Vhristine, Margaret

Westwater Creek, Utah: (VI)-Antoine Robidou aka Robidoux born September 24, 1794 St. Louis, Missouri, d-1860, son (V)-Joseph Robidou born February 12, 1750 Recollet and Catherine Rolet (Laderoute) of St. Louis ; made an inscription saying he was establishing a trading post on Green or White Rivers, Utah or in the Uinta basin.   The inscription is worn and hard to read.  He had 5 brothers in the fur trade and he and some of the other brothers took country wives.

Nathaniel Wyeth sold Fort Hall on the Snake River near the mouth of the Portneuf River in Idaho to the Hudson Bay Company.

The American Fur Company launched the vessel 'Madeline' in Lake Superior.

February 26, 1837, McLeod, Parys and Hayes accompanied by Pierre Bottineau Metis (1810/17-1895) as their guide, left La Fourche, Red River Colony to start a 750 mile expedition. Only Bottineau and McLeod survived the trip, arriving at Fort Snelling, St. Peters, on Apr 16, 1837. On May 4, 1837, Bottineau started on his return on horse-back, took a traveler at Lac Traverse, and reached the Red River June 5th. He spent the summer and winter following hunting and trapping


August 20:  Moose Factory, birth (II)-Henry Swanson son (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) employed HBC (1812-1865), and Betsy Hister Indian or Metis; married 1864 Stromness

September 5:   Canada West, marriage Thomas Gouro to Mary Anne Scratch.

October 21: Red River baptism (II)-Unamed Lillie, Metis daughter (I)-Daniel Lillie aka (Lilley, Lilly & Lily) and likely Indian women

November 28: Nelson River, birth (II)-David Isbister, Metis baptized July 17, 1842 Red River, Son (I)-John Isbister aka Isbester (1796-1883) and Frances (Fanny) (Essessepow) Sinclair Metis or Indian, b-1813

November 30: Cumberland House, baptism (II)-Elizabeth Lee Lewes, Metis son (I)-John Lee Lewes (1792-1872) and (II)-Francoise (Frances) Ballenden, Metis (1790-1800) ; married 1872, W.D. Lane b-1872

December:   Red River, birth Gabriel Dumont Metis died May 19, 1906 Batoche son Isidore Dumont and grandson Jean Baptiste Dumont.



(III)-James Beads, Metis b-1838, son (II)-John Beads, Metis, b-1795 Rupert's Land, employed HBC (1814-1856), and Margaret Indian or Metis (1800-1856).  Joined HBC (1844-1858) Lachine House, member John Palliser expedition (1857-1958), married Elizabeth
    (IV)-Richard Beads Metis bapt 1853. 

James Pierson Beckwourth (1798-1866) is trading out of Fort Vasquez (built 1835) on the Arkansas River near Platteville Mexican Territory (Colorado)

(II)-Alexander Christie Metis Jr. b-1818 Rupert's House son (I)-Alexander Christie Sr. (1783-1872) and (II)-Ann Thomas Metis b-1796; employed HBC (1838-1839) Esquimaux Bay Newfoundland.

(I)-Robert Clouston (1821-1858) an Orkney joined HBC (1838-1858), York Factory (1839-1839); Fort Edmonton (1839-1841); Oxford House (1841-1842); Red River (1842-1848) ; York Factory (1848-1849): Fort Vancouver (1850-1851); Honolulu 1851-1858)  Robert Clouston had three known wives  
Known siblings
    (I)-James Srewart Clouston 
    (I)-Anne Rose Pelly  who married 1857 Hamilton,  A. Edward Pelly 
    (I)-Margaret Clouston who had a son Edward Robert
His first wife was Adelaide Lapierre d-1849) of Red River with whom he had 
      (II)-Elizabeth Clouston Metis living Red River. 
His second wife was Jessy Ross d-1849) daughter of Donald Ross of Norway House. 
His third wife was Maria, a Hawaiian native. Their daughter was 
    Annie Clouston 

(III)-Henry Connolly (Conoly, Connely) Metis born Indian Country d-1910 son (II)-William Connolly born Lechine, Quebec (1787-1849) and Suzanne Pas-de-nom a Cree d-1862, joined HBC (1838-1869) Moose Factory, Rupert's River, Kenogamissi River, Lake Heron and Esquimaux /bay

Island Lake District, birth (II)-William Grieve, Metis (1838-1903) son (I)-James Grieve Sr. (1797-1875) Orkney and Metis woman;   married Mary Abb Sinclair, died March 26, 1907.

Birth twins (II)-Roderick and Kenneth Finlatson, Metis sons (I)-Nicol Finlayson (1794-1877) and (II)-Elizabeth (Betsy) Kennedy (1810-1842) Metis. 

Christopher Houstan "Kit" Carson (1809-1868) with his wife Waa-Nide an Arapho and his Metis Daughter Adelene b-1837 traded furs at Fort Uinta.  Adelene died shortly after the birth of their second daughter b-1838.

(III)-Caroline McKay, Metis b-1838 daughter (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877/87) and (II)-Harriet Ballenden Metis (1795/1800-1854): 

(I)-George Mowat joined HBC (1838-1843) married Elizabeth Moar Metis and had one Metis child, this family returned to Birsay, Orkney in 1843

(I)- Joseph (Jean) Nicolas Nicollet (1786-1843) a Frenchman maps the area between Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, during the years 1838-39  

Charles Pratt Metis Jr. (1837-1898) born Fort Pelly, Swan River son Charles Pratt Sr. (1816-1888) and Kittymarried 1855 Catherine Stevenson Metis daughter John Stevenson Metis HBC (1852-1867) Swan River
    Henry John Pratt Metis bapt 1856
    Harriet Pratt Metis bapt 1859
    Adelaidet Pratt Metis bapt 1862, d-1866
    Priscilla Pratt Metis bapt 1864, d-1866
    Thomas Pratt Metis bapt 1869, d-1871
    Colin Pratt Metis bapt 1871
    Frederick Pratt Metis bapt 1874, d-1897
    Josiah Pratt Metis b-1843 school teacher Touchwood Hills for 25 years, married 1868 Jane Brass daughter Peter Brass
        Margaret Pratt Metis bapt 1849
        Maria Pratt Metis bapt 1854 Fort Pelly
Charles Rondeau, born 1799, Quebec,  married, 1838, Agathe Dupate, Metis,  (1825-1848) daughter Jean Baptiste Dupate and Kalapuya

(I)-Donald Alexander Smith (1820-1914) joined HBC (1838-1914) Newfoundland, Quebec, Fort Gary, married 1853 Isabella Sophia Hardisty Grant (1825-1913) daughter (I)-Richard Hardisty Metis (1792-1965) and (II)-Margaret Sutherland (1802-1876)
    James Grant
    (II)-Margaret Charlotte Smith Metis (1854-1926)

(II)-William Spencer Metis b-1822 Montreal son (I)-John Hodges Spencer (1790-1881) and (II)-Anne Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) joined HBC (1838-1872);
(1838-1840) Lake Superior
(1841-1844) Columbia District
(1844-1846) English River
(1846-1848) Lesser Slave Lake
(1848-1849) Rocky Mountain House
Married (III)-Caroline Small Metis b-1827 Fort Carlton daughter (II)-Patrick Small Metis (1789-1846) and Nancy Hughes Metis; recorded child:
    (III)-Arthur Spencer Metis bapt 1860 

The British Government, being ignorant of the Companies actions in Canada or not really caring, renewed the Hudson Bay Company license for twenty-one years.  John R. Livingston of the American Fur Company replaced Gabriel Franchere (1786-1863) at St. Mary's, Sault Ste Marie.  Missions are established at Red Lake, Sandy Lake, Mille Lacs and Crow Wing.

Representatives of several Southern States met in Cleveland to discuss the invasion of Canada.  They framed a constitution for a "Free Canada" and made arrangements for the issuance of invasion currency.   President Van Buren responded:  This government recognizes a still higher obligation to repress all attempts on the part of its citizens to disturb the peace of a country where order prevails, or has been re-established.  Later this year the hypocrite President hailed the forced removal of the Cherokee Indian tribe to new lands in the West.

Upper Mississippi District, birth Margaret Campbell, Metis daughter Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman; married Joseph Labathe.

Upper Mississippi District, Jean Baptiste Campbell, Metis born about 1838 son Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman.

FORT PELLYFort Pelly  
(I)-William Todd, (1784-1851) a physician at Fort Pelly on the Assiniboine River (Saskatchewan), used a cowpox virus to vaccinate the Fort and the Indians.  He taught the Indians how to vaccinate their own people, and those who were vaccinated were spared a high mortality rate.  Vaccine was sent to all other Houses and Forts.   For those who refused vaccination, like the Cree and Assiniboine, the death rate was staggering.  Half the Slave, Blackfoot, Blood, Piegan, Circees and Fall (Gros Ventre)  Indians died this season.   The Woodland Indians were spared but the Plains Indian suffered terrible losses, some up to 3/4 of their population.   William McKay at Beaver Creek was ordered to vaccinate the Indians in his region and he complied.

Charles Ducharsne, Metis, at Carlton House, is seriously ill with smallpox. 

News arrived that two French Canadian priests, Norbert Blanchet and Modests Demers, are on their way to Columbia, which the Anglicans had a desire to reach.  The Hudson Bay Company prohibited the clergy from going west of Red River.

The 23 ton 'William Brewster', the 60 ton 'Algonquin' and the 40 ton 'Siskawit' are hauled up the St. Mary rapids into Lake Superior.

Thomas Farnham, traveling the Santa Fe trail, was in the midst of bison (buffalo) for three days.  It is estimated that this herd numbered well over a million animals, covering 1,350 square miles.

The rebel Sam Hustan (1793-1863), a US soldier is named president of the Mexican Republic of Texas.

The Mormon Danities (sons of Dan), the destroying or avenging angles includes the Council of 50 and are designed for blood atonement to kill gentiles or offending Mormons.  Anyone who attempts to challenge Joseph Smith or the authority of the 50 are dealt with by the Danities.   Those who attempted to leave the cult were also subject to the wrath of the Danities.  Those who rejected evil requests were subject to castration if they did not comply.  Anyone (except the council of 50) who are believed involved in adultery were beat, wounded and castrated.  Mormons who were obnoxious to the leaders were made eunuch.  It is not know how many thousands were killed this century by the dreaded Danities, known as a secret police organization.

(II)-Peter Warren Dease, Metis (1788-1863) a chief factor with a 12 man team departed Fort Gary to Lake Athabasca to chart the arctic they wintered Great Bear Lake.  (I)-Thomas Simpson (1808-1840) was a junior member of the team.  He later became deranged and killed two men then suicides.  

Joseph Charette Metis and Baptiste Charette Metis is living Red River 1838 with J. Simon Belgrade, in 1840 as unmarried and Baptiste in 1840 listed as married.  Baptiste had two children
    One daughter likely born b-1839
    one son likely born b-1840

January 5:   At Carlton House, (Saskatchewan) on the Saskatchewan River, a Metis named Piere Le Rocque died of smallpox which was carried by the Indians from Fort Union on the Missouri River.  It was later learned that his batch of cowpox was dormant and provided no protection to him and others. 

February 10:  Musquaro, Mingan District, death (II)-William Gladman, Metis (1810-1838) son (I)-George Gladman Sr. and (II)-Mary Moore (Moar) Metis (1774-1858) leaving two children (III)-William Gladman Jr, Metis and (II)-George Gladman Metis in canada

February 26:  Cahokia, marriage (IV)-Etienne Lepage, Metis, son (IV)-Louis Lepage, Metis and Julie Alarie: married Louise Reynal 

May of 1838, Pierre Bottineau (1810/17-1895) undertook a trip across the plains as guide for a large party, consisting of forty families, Swiss, French, and Scotch. They used General H. H. Sibley's barge to transport the party from Traverse des Sioux to Fort Snelling in 14 days. Bottineau brought down twenty head of cattle from the Red River settlement as well as some other merchandise. He sold on his arrival, cows at $50 to $75, oxen at $150 to $200 per pair, butter at fifty cents per pound.

May 10:  Sault Saint Marie, birth Angelique Davieaux, Metis the daughter Hyacinthe Davieaux b-1805 married Charlotte Misay, likely Sault Saint Marie after 1830 a first marriage 1829 to Piquette or Josette Pellerin, likely Sault Ste Marie;  married May 14, 1860, Neil McKay son Jean McKay and Elizabeth Lavallee.  source Monique Daviau and Rhonda. 

May 20:  Red River, baptism, (II)-Henry Foulds, Metis, son, (I)-Samuel Foulds (Folds, Foldes) (1803-1870) to Nancy (Ann & Anne) Calder, Metis (1803-1896); married November 28, 1906, Jesse Kirton

March 19; Red River  baptism/birth (III)-Andrew Whitford, Metis son (II)-James Whitford, Jr. Metis and Mary Spence; 

October 9:  Florissant, Missouri, marriage Joseph Chaput to (VI)-Caroline Hubou, Metis daughter (V)-Toussaint Hubou, Metis and Marie Reine Calve.

November 2: Rupert's House, birth (II)-Ann Seaborn Miles, Metis daughter (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles Sr. (1795-1870) to (II)-Elizabeth (Betsey) Sinclair, Metis (1805-1878); married Robert Hamilton. 

November 21:  Red River birth (II)-Elizabeth Wishart, Metis, daughter (I)-Thomas Wishart b-1797 Scotland and Barbara Spence Metis.

December 3-4:  About 400 men from Detroit called 'The Patriots' raided Windsor in what is called 'The Patriot Wars', but they were repulsed by the Canadian militia under the command of John Prince (1796-1879).  Four of the Invaders were summarily executed by Prince.

December 13:  Grand Rapids, marriage (Churched) (I)-Thomas Firth b-1796/99 to Elizabeth a native woman, actual country marriage before 1830



The United State first proclaimed the Manifest Destiny. this year, that assumed the Americans, a naturally superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race, was divinely destined to expand across North America (Canada, Mexico, Cuba and Central America) to the exclusion of Indians, Black and Hispanic Peoples.  The American Constitution did not apply to non-Anglo-Saxons in practice until the late 20 century.   It was and is an ingrained ideology in American political to achieve their ambitions through 'might is right'.  They used this philosophy to annex Indian Nation Lands throughout the U.S.A., Canadian lands in Washington, Idaho. Montana and Oregon, Mexican lands of Texas, New Mexico and California.  They attempted to take Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia.  The Spanish exploration of central North America accounted for nothing, not even respect.  The threat of invasion was always present for 200 years in North America. 

Jacob Bear Metis b-1839 Swampy Cree joined HBC (1860-1871) Swan River, married 1860 Red River Nanacy Thomas Metis b-1838, both well educated, they had 2 children

Lake Huron, Jean Baptiste Beaudrie Sr. b-1807 employed HBC French River, Lake Huron District (1839-1872), he likely married an Indian or Metis woman and likely had two Metis children 
    Jean Baptiste Beaudrie, Jr. Metis HBC (1861-1868) Lake Huron 
    Michel Beaudrie Metis  HBC (1861-1872) Lake Huron 

Joseph Desjarlais (Desjarlois) Metis born North West, d-1862, a free trader worked Swan River (Manitoba) 1829-1831; Athabasca (Alberta) 1848-1854),  married about 1839 Lusate Sayer Metis daughter Francois Sayer b-1816.  Their recorded children are:
    Antoine Desjarlais Metis b-1840 Oak Point (Manitoba) married Marie Chartrand b-1852
    Stanislas  Desjarlais Metis b-1845 Oak Point (Manitoba) 
    Joseph Desjarlais Metis b-1847 Oak Point (Manitoba) married Mary Malater b-1849 daughter James Malater of Red River
    Alex Desjarlais Metis b-1850 Oak Point (Manitoba) 
    Julia Desjarlais Metis b-1852 Oak Point (Manitoba) 
    Mary Desjarlais Metis b-1854 Oak Point (Manitoba) 

Red River, baptism, (III)-Amelia Fidler, Metis daughter (II)-Charles Fidler, Metis b-1798 and likely Metis or Indian girl.

Moose Fort, birth (II)-Mary Finlayson, Metis daughter (I)-Nicol Finlayson (1794-1877) and  (II)-Elizabeth (Betsy) Kennedy (1810-1842) Metis 

Island Lake District, birth (II)-George Grieve, Metis son (I)-James Grieve Sr. (1797-1875) Orkney and Metis woman; employed HBC (1875-1885) York Factory.

Matawagamingue birth (II)-Henry Hardesty, (1839-1876) Metis son (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) employed HBC (1817-1861) to (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1976), also a daughter named Nancy or Agnes?

Paul Le Frenche Metis b-1839 Pembina Prairie de Chien son Josephine, living Wisconsin 1871

(II)-Miles Spenser Metis (1839-1919) born Nichiquon, Ruperts River son (I)-John Hodges Spenser (1790-1881) and (II)-Anne Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) Joined HBC (1857-1899) married Edith McLaren they had 7 children;
    (III)-Daisy Spenser Metis married Rev. W.G. Walton
    (III)-Stella Spenser Metis married D.J. Gilmour
    (III)-Chrisse Spenser Metis married M. Fields
    (III)-Edna Spenser Metis married Gordon Lynch 
    (III)-Winnie Spenser
    (III)-Walter Spenser Metis he had 3 wives and 18 children including (IV)-Ray
    (III)-Cameron (Ronie) Spenser Metis

European hat makers switched from beaver to silk, seriously impacting the fur trade in Canada.  Governor (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) invited the Wesleyan Methodists into the country to offset the Roman Catholics and Anglicans.  David Jones followed the Hudson Bay Company directives and he hoped the Wesleyan would also be more amenable.

Rankin took some Lake Superior Ojibwa to Britain for display.  Louis Cadotte, the half-breed (Metis), is the interpreter who presented them to the Queen.  He married in St. Martins Church, London.  His wife died at Sault Ste Marie.

Upper Mississippi District, Marie Campbell, Metis born about 1839 daughter Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman.

Isobel Finlayson arrived Red River being the wife of Duncan Finlayson Governor of Assiniboia, only to discover their were children in the country who called her husband daddy.  Duncan had been in the field since 1815.  Isobel returned to London by 1859.  Simpson, (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847), William Connolly and many more company officials had one or more country wives.

baptism  (II)-Anne MacKenzie Finlayson, Metis daughter (I)-Nicol Finlayson (1794-1877) to a native woman

Upper Mississippi District, Mathas S. Campbell, Metis born about 1839 son Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman.

Joseph Gervais 1st. married, 1839 at Willamette, Oregon, Marguerite Yi-a-must Clatsop (1850-1840); 2nd marriage Marie Angelique Chinook. 

Oxford House, birth, (III)-unamed Grant, Metis son (II)-Richard Grant (1793-1862) employed HBC (1816-1850) and local unknown

Guerin, born 1812 Saint Remi, settled across the Mississippi and became an early settler of St. Paul.

Matawagamingue, Kenogamissee Bay, birth (II)-Henry Hardesty, (1839-1876) Metis son (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) employed HBC (1817-1861) and (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1876); 

Augustin Lambert (1811/14-1881) son Augustin Lambert and Claire Lerruin of Yakaska, Quebec joined HBC (1831-1837) Athabasca, New Caledonia and Columbia District.  He married Catherine Pichet, probably in Canada and then went to Red River where, while Catherine waited the birth of her first child,  Augustin continued on to Oregon Territory/Columbia Department. Their recorded children were 
    Marie Lambert (1839-1852), born Red River
    Augustin Lambert (1839-1880), born Red River
    Adelaide Lambert (1844-1851), balance of children born Columbia District.
    Colette Lambert (1845-1850), 
    Michel Lambert (1847-1852), 
    François Lambert b-1849
    Catherine Lambert b-1852
    Cuthbert Lambert (1853-1880), 
    Antoine Lambert (1856-1882), 
    Marie (Lambert b-1857
    Adelaide II Lambert (1859-1869), 
    Alfrede Marie Lambert b-1865
    Alfred Lambert m. 1896

June 12: Severn, York District, marriage (I)-John Cromartie (1792-1878) Orkney, employed HBC (1812-1870), 1st married about 1823 Elizabeth Indian Woman; 2nd married 1839 (II)-Catherine Park, Metis, (1816/17-1860) daughter (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) and Margaret Metisse (1796-1853)

June 25: Red River, baptism (III)-Charles Swain, Metis son (II)-James Swain Jr. Metis (1799-1887) and Margaret Racette b-1809 son (I)-James Swain Sr. b-1775 and native woman; 

July 29: Assiniboia marriage (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) and 2nd wife Mrs. Sarah Ingham (1803-1886) likely Metis, a school mistress with 6 native pupils under 15 in 1838.

August 11:  St. Joseph Mission Lapointe, Wisconsin marriage Josephus (Joseph) Sansfacon (Sauperson) dit LaGrue, born 1813 Riviere St. Pierre, (Minnesota). to Marie Anna Cadotte born 1813 Riviere St. Pierre (a Minnesota River).   

September 16:   Sault Ste Marie, Ontario, James Anderson born 1813 Indian Country in Upper Canada married Margaret Mackinsie born 1821.

October 26: Oxford House, birth (II)-Adam Isbister, Metis baptized July 17, 1842 Red River, son (I)-John Isbister aka Isbester (1796-1883) and Frances (Fanny) (Essessepow) Sinclair Metis or Indian, b-1813

November 25::  Red River, baptism (II)-Mary Firth, Metis daughter (I)-Thomas Firth b-1796/99 to Elizabeth a native woman  



(III)-Thomas Beads, Metis bapt-1840, son (II)-John Beads, Metis, b-1795 Rupert's Land, d-1870, employed HBC (1814-1856), and Margaret Indian or Metis (1800-1856).  Joined HBC (1860-1870) Swan River and Red River, married 1860 Red River left his widow and a lame Meris son in great destitution.

Father Belcourt held service at Duck Bay on Lake Winnipegosis.

Paul Belonger, Ojibwa Metis, b-1834, Mackinac, son, Paul Belonger Metis and Angelique Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as from the Leech Lake Indians.  

Angus Faries Metis (1840-1900) born Hudson Bay, Indian Lands, joined HBC (1855-1899) Moose, Eastman, Rupert's River etc. married (II)-Mary Corston Metis (1850-1938) daughter (I)-William Corston d-1898 and Margaret MacKey Metis d-1902
    Richard Faries Metis (1870-1964) married Catherine Isabella Craig d-1951
    Jane Faries Metis b-1874 married 1902 Ashton Alton

Red River, baptism, (III)-Catherine Fidler, Metis daughter (II)-Charles Fidler, Metis b-1798 and likely Metis or Indian girl.

Charles Forrest, HBC is assigned to the HBC Cowlitz Farm and married Wiltamist b-1820 a lower Chinook woman. 

Joseph Gendron married his 3rd wife 1839 Louise Chinook, b-1825 played a joke on the Protestant missionaries at the Dalles, Oregon Territory by reciting passages from the Arabian Nights in French in the guise of prayers.

York Factory, birth (II)-John Vincent Gladman, Metis (1840-1910) son (II)-George Gladman Jr. Metis (1800-1863) employed HBC (1814-1853) and (II)-Harriet Vincent, Metis b-1798, epouse 1810, David Ramsey Stewart: married Matilda Rowe, infant who died 1847

(III)-Charles McKay, Metis (1840-1916) son (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877/87) and (II)-Harriet Ballenden Metis  (1795/1800-1854):

(I)-Robert Millar b-1798 married Red River about 1840 (II)-Elizabeth Setter, Metis daughter (I)-Andrew Setter (1779-1870) and Margareth (Peggy) Spence, Metis. 

Birth likely Ogden, Mexican Territory (Utah) William Miles Goodyear, Metis son Miles Goodyear (1817-1849) and Pomona Ute.

Widowed David Munro married Betsey who had 4 to 5 previous marriages to those Hudson Bay Men.

(III)-Donald Ross Metis Jr. (1840-1878) son (II)-Donald Ross Metis Sr. and Mary McBeath; joined HBC (1854-1878) Norway House, English River, assigned Athabasca 1867, died Fort Varmilion,  married (III)-Ann McKenzie Metis died before 1878
    (IV)-William Ross Metis, b-1869

Lake Manitoba in 1740 was called Lac des Prairies and later Lake of the Meadows.  Pere Lacombe says it is derived from the Cree word Manitowapaw, meaning supernatural or god-like.  Others say it means, the place where the spirits dwells. 

Jean Baptiste Wilkie, an English Halfbreed, who was raised by the French, was elected Chief Captain of the bison (buffalo) hunt.

The Metis who visited York Factory are described as the men who wear long blue capotes like children's surtouts (very long) and hoods- either hanging down or on their heads, scarlet leggins, not trowsers, and gay scarlet military sashes round their waist.

In the 1840's the primary semi-permanent wintering locations for the Red River Metis are Turtle Mountain, the Souris River Valley, Oak Lake, Whitewater Lake, and Pelican Lake.  They wintered in these locations because the bison (buffalo) wintered in these locations.  Contrary to popular belief many returned to their same homes for 10 to 30 years.  In the summer they would go to their summer homes in the Red River area to trade furs and catch up on news.   

Fort McKenzie, Montana, birth Jerry Potts died July 14, 1896 son John Potts a Scott who died 1850's who worked for the American Fur Company and a Piegan woman or as others say a Blood known as Crooked Back who died 1840's.  Jerry Potts worked for the Canadian Mounted Police for 22 years.  One epitaph says Jerry Potts the Metis was like Moses, he led the Mounted Police out of the desert and brought them to the end of their difficulties.  This is not far from the truth as he made all the major decisions in the management of the southern Alberta Mounted Police this century.  

Some early Metis settlers to St. Paul, Minnesota include:  Bottineau, Gervais, Labissonniere, Cloutier, Pepin, Desmarais, Bazile, Laroche, Benot and Fournier to name a few.  It is noteworthy that the word settler assumes a land claim was made.  Soldiers, trappers, traders, freighters, guides, interpreters or those squatting in or about St. Paul would not be considered as settlers.  

Smallpox eliminated the Mandan Natives who farmed the Mississippi plains, and the few survivors joined other bands.  In 1804, a Mandan town had been located near Bismarck, North Dakota which was the wintering point for the Lewis and Clark expedition to the Pacific.

The Anglicans establish a mission at Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan, soon moving to the Pas.

Marie Cadotte born 1840 Red River, North West daughter Laurent Cadotte (b-1787) and Betsy Thomas (b-1810).  Marie Cadotte married about 1863 Red River, North West a Antoine LaLiberte born 1837 Red River, North West son Antoine LaLiberte.  The family is living Red River 1870 census.

Lawrence Garneau born 1840, Bay Mills (South East of Sault Ste Marie), Michigan, a Metis, died December 10, 1921 St. Paul de Metis, Alberta son (6)-Louis Garneau born 1790 La Pointe, Madeleine Island, Lake Superior and Archange Cadotte born Canada.  The 1881 census states place of parent’s birth as Ontario and the 1850 census states place of birth of Louis as Wisconsin.  Family tradition has Lawrence's birth place as Bay Mills, Michigan.

Sault Ste Marie

This painting of Sault Ste Marie is from the 1840's.  The actual location is unknown. 


One thousand two hundred and ten Red River carts and four hundred huntsmen in the annual bison (buffalo) hunt collected 1,075 bison (buffalo) (others suggest 1,300) under the command of the Metis hunt Chief and his Officers.  The commanders are selected annually by democratic election, a process learned from their Native ancestors.  The Metis organized two hunts per year in June and in September or October.  Strict rules of the hunt maintained order, and they used a democratic process to establish the leadership and the rules.

Charles MacKenzie wrote:  The Mark of Cain is upon all born in this Country (Canada), neither education nor abilities serve them, the Honorable (Hudson Bay) Company is unwilling to take natives even as apprentice clerks and the favored few they do take can never aspire higher.  Let there be no doubt, that this systemic practice would prevail for the next one hundred and thirty years, being imbedded in Law and Government legislation.  This attitude would also prevail in the Roman Catholic Church and other international business ventures.  I look in the mirror and can still see the seeds of this Roman and English evil.

(I)-Robert William Miller (1798-1843) married 1840 Red River (II)-Elizabeth Setter Metis bapt 1822 daughter (I)-Andrew Setter (1779-1870) and Margaret (Peggy) Spence Metis b-1790
    (II)-Margaret Miller Metis bapt 1843
    (II)-Barbara Miller Metis bapt 1845
    (II)-Ann Miller Metis bapt 1846
    (II)-Elizabeth Miller Metis bapt 1847
    (II)-Georget Miller Metis bapt 1848

Edward Monkman Metis b-1840 Red River, joined HBC (1860-1870) Red River and Swan River 

John Sinclair Metis b-1820 joined HBC (1840-1852) Swan River, Red River, married Marie Gariepy Metis likely sister Cassimir Gariepy from Sorel, Quebec
    Thomas Sinclair Metis b-1845
    John Sinclair Metis b-1850
    William Sinclair Metis b-1852
    Marguerite Sinclair Metis b-1855

(I)-Charles Stuart (1820-1907) joined HBC (1840-1872) Temiscamingue, married Margaret Gladman Metis
    (II)-Josephine Stuart Metis b-1863

(III)-James Vincent Metis (1840-1909) son (II)-John Vincent b-1796/97 and (II)-Chatlotte Thomas Metis b-1805;
1st married Caroline Gladman Metis 
    (IV)-Joseph Gladman Vincent Metis (1868-1896) married Christina
    (IV)-Erland Erlandson Vincent Metis b-1870 Kenogumissee married Jane Taylor
    (IV)-Harriet Vincent Metis b-1872 Kenogumissee
    (IV)-James W. Vincent Metis b-1874 Mistassinny, Ruperts River
    (IV)-Ann Sarah Jane Vincent Metis b-1879 Albany
2nd marriage Ann Agnes Linklater b-before 1900
    (IV)-Sydney Thomas Graham Vincent (1893-1895) 
    (IV)-Stanley Benjamin Vincent b-1896 Albany
    (IV)-Josepine Clar Stuart Vincent 
    (IV)-Harriet Mary Caroline Vincent married Schulyer C. Peck, Denver Colerado.

St. Paul, Minnesota had no more than four hundred inhabitants, most of whom are French Canadian Metis.  Annual excursions between Red River and St. Paul, Minnesota, trading furs for merchandise, began some time before 1840.

Peter Lassen, a Dutch immigrant, arrived at Lassen Peak, California some time this decade. 

Mount Rainier of Washington experienced a minor eruption.

Some time during this decade the Irish introduced the feast of Halloween or as they called it Samhain into the American culture.  It is believed to have originated about the 5th century B.C. among the Celtic people or earlier.  The Romans adopted this ritual and called it Pomoma and in 800 A.D. the Christians adopted it calling it All Saints or All souls Days.  The question of witches was introduced into Quebec, as a matter of faith, by the Jesuits in the early 1600's.  Churches however at this time considered all things associated with Halloween or Hallowtide as being evil.  Few people now consider it a feast, that recognizes the beginning of the season of dark and cold and the release of dead souls from the earth.  As then, as it is now, it is a time for merriment after a successful harvest.

Agents of the Hudson Bay Company explored the Yukon, between 1840-1860 and discovered small quantities of gold, but little was made of the findings.

(VI)-Antoine Robidoux (1794-1860), Joe Meek and other traders wintered at Fort Davy Crockett and gambled to pass the time.  (VI)-Antoine Robidoux (1794-1860) lost all his money and even lost an Indian slave girl.  Boys were worth $50.00 to $100.00, girls were worth $100.00 to $200.00.

James Smith Metis (1840-1917) likely son Edward Smith d-1849 of Athabasca, joined HBC (1864-1871) Athabasca, others suggest he was an early settler at Clandeboye (Manitoba) son (I)-John James Smith (1791-1850) and Nancy Favel;  he had 5 sons and 5 daughters 

Joe Meek b-1810 joined with Doc Newell to escort one of the first wagon trains into the Oregon Territory settling in the Willamette Valley, near the future Hillsboro. 

The United States  developed the Manifest Destiny during the 1840's for control of North America.  This was fueled by their inability to manage their own affairs which manifested itself by their depressions of 1818 and 1849.  The cry became 'Boundaries of Freedom' but it excluded those people who they perceived as being incapable of self-governing, such as Indians, Canadians and Mexicans.   The fact that they continue to refer to themselves as 'Americans' speaks to this failed destiny.

The HBC was buying 100,000 lbs of buffalo (bison) a year

The average marriage age in Red River was males age 26 and females age 22.  

January 4:  Red River, birth (II)-Curtis James Bird, Metis (1837-1876) son  (I)-James Bird (1773-1856), and Mary Kelly Lowman (1801-1873) Metis or Indian, 

January 9: Red River baptism (II)-Jane Lillie, Metis daughter (I)-Daniel Lillie aka (Lilley, Lilly & Lily) and Mary Ann Richards Metis (1812-1847)

January 21:   The Ojibwa and Iroquois on the credit river near Toronto, renewed a friendship treaty.  Two hundred Ojibwa Chiefs and fifteen Iroquois headmen were attending.  The Ojibwa and Iroquois, numbering several thousand, were standing united amidst waves of white settlers rapidly encroaching on their territories.

January 21: Ille-a-la Crosse or St. Boniface (Manitoba) marriage (VI)-Jeawn Louis Riel Metis (1817-1864) [Ancestor of Louis Riel of Red River fame] son (V)-Jean Baptiste Riel dot I'Irlande and Margaret Boucher Metis b-1785; married Julie LaGimodiere Metis b-1809

January 24:  Red River, baptism (II)-Thomas Mowat, Metis son (I)-Edward Mowat aka Moad (1778-1862) and Mary an Indian 

March 31: Red River, baptism  (III)-Thomas Beads, Metis, son (II)-John Beads, Metis, b-1795 Rupert's Land, employed HBC (1814-1856), and Margaret Indian or Metis (1800-1856).

April 29:  Red River, baptism, (II)-Harret Foulds, Metis daughter  (I)-John Foulds (1798-1868) employed HBC (1821-1825) mostly Fort Gary, Red River, and (II)-Mary Fidler, Metis born after 1805 (maybe 1811?) daughter (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822)

May:   The American military demolished the Metis houses at St Paul, Minnesota across the river from their Fort, considering them a risk to security.

May 28: Red River baptism (II)-Sarah Logan, Metis, daughter (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) and 2nd wife Mrs. Sarah Ingham (1803-1886) likely Metis: married Henry McDermot

May 27: Red River, baptism (III)-Donald Gunn, Metis son (II)-William Gunn, Metis (1822-1842) son (I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878) employed HBC (1813-1822) out of York Factory; married a half-breed woman before 1821 York Factory and 2nd marriage January 17, 1826, Image Plains, (III)-Margaret Swain, Metis, daughter (II)-James Swain, Metis (1799-1887) and Margaret Racette b-1809.

June:   (I)-Thomas Simpson (1808-1840) departed Red River for Fort Snelling with a large party of what he called Half-Breeds (Metis). On June 14 he shot two of his men dead. Later he was found shot, and no one was willing to say what really happened.  The HBC listed the incident as murder-suicide and concluded he was deranged.  He had just returned from a four year expedition to chart the arctic.

June 1, 1840, Pierre Bottineau Metis (1810/17-1895) crossed the plains once more with a large party consisting of twenty families and brought his own family along to settle in this country. They arrived at Fort Snelling in July, but were driven away by the officers of the fort. He and his family went on to St. Paul and made a claim there. During the summer he was employed by Mr. Aiken, an old agent of the American Fur Company, with others to transport freight.

June 15:   The role was called for a semi-annual bison (buffalo) hunt out of the Metis settlement of Red River.  1,630 people were present with 1,210 Red River carts.

June 28:  Red River, 3rd marriage, (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) son (I)-Jenkins Daniel and Indian woman: married Madeleine McKay b-1825 Red River; married 1st wife 1809, Indian Woman from Albany; married 2nd wife 1829, Mary Indian Marten Falls, Albany River. d-1837, Red River.

June 28:   LaPointe, Wisconsin marriage Eustachius Bellecourt, Metis born 1815 Lac de la Sang-ous (Leech Lake, Minnesota) baptised 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin son Baptiste Bellecour and Sah-gah-je-way-guay married La Pointe, Wisconsin a Josepha Curepain born 1824 both living Lac des sables (Sandy Lake, Minnesota) which is on the St Louis River/Lake Superior to Mississippi River portage route.   Location and parent value add by Jay Holmen. 

August 4:  Moose Factory, marriage (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) employed HBC (1812-1865), married 1st. about 1815, (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown, Metis daughter (I)-Joseph Brown (1772-1818) and Elizabeth Indian or Metis; 2nd marriage about 1836, Betsy Hister Indian or Metis; 3rd wife married August 4, 1840, Frances Robinson (1821-1876) daughter John Robinson of Michipicoten  (Northern Ontario) and Indian woman.  William spent his adult life at Moose, so he likely married his three wives there and had his children there.  

September 2:  York Factory, NWT, "I have seen 2 of the most distinguished voyageurs.  They were dressed in sky blue capots scarlet sashes & high scarlet night caps & moccasins -L'Esperance was a Canadian the other a half cast but there was little difference in their colour they have been so much exposed."  Letitia Hargrave to Dougald Mactavish.

December 5:  Red River, baptism (II)-Elizabeth Firth, Metis died April 12, 1842, daughter (I)-Thomas Firth b-1796/99 to Elizabeth a native woman  

December 17:  Red River, marriage (I)-Daniel Lillie aka (Lilley, Lilly & Lily) to 2nd wife Mary Anne Richards, half breed  (1812-1847)




(I)-Samuel Black (1780-1841), a Scotsman,  a Chief Trader for H.B.C. (1823), a wintering partner for the North West Company (1804) a clerk for the XY company (1804).

Moose Factory, (I)-Joseph Beioley aka Bewley (1785-1859) departed for London and abandoned his Indian wife(s) and four Metis children including (II)-Joseph Alexander Beioley, Metis d-1864 Red River, married Ann Moore and had a child (III)-Anna Maria Bioley, Metis b-1842

Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast.  Living Oregon 1842

Pierre Bottineau, Metis (1810/17-1895) and brother Severe Bottineau, b-1814 Metis, relocated from Fort Snelling to Saint Paul, being evicted by the army.

Christopher Houstan "Kit" Carson (1809-1868) married at Ft. Bridger near the Green River, his second wife Making-Out-Road, a Cheyenne but she left him a short time later to follow her migrating tribe. 

(II)-William Cromartie Metis b-1841 Fort Severn son (I)-John Cromartie (1792-1878) and Catherine Park Metis b-1816 joined HBC (1858-1862) York, married 1862 Mary Ann (Marion) Hourie b-1848 daughter George Hourie
    (III)-Helen Cromartie Metis b-1862
    (III)-Elisabeth A. Cromartie Metis b-1865
    (III)-William G. Cromartie Metis b-1866
    (III)-John R. Cromartie Metis b-1869
    (III)-Samuel Cromartie Metis b-1870

Father Jean Edouard Darveau established a mission at Duck Bay on Lake Winnipegosis in competition with the Reverend Abraham Cowley of the Angelican Church Missionary Society.

James Douglas b-1803 of the Hudson Bay Company established Yerba Buena Trading Post in San Francisco, California.

John Ferguson aka Farquarhson Metis b-1841 likely Red River son John Ferguson aka Farquarhson (1809-1875) and likely Sophie Montour? Joined HBC (1859-1877) Rocky Mountain House, Saskatchewan River District and Fort Edmonton.  Classed as a native of Lac Ste. Anne 

Birth likely Ogden, Mexican Territory (Utah) Mary Elizabeth Miles Goodyear, Metis daughter Miles Goodyear (1817-1849) and Pomona Ute.

Ann Guernon, aka Gourneau, Metis, b-1841, daughter, Joseph George Guernon, aka Gorneau, Guernon, & Gernon, Metis, b-1795 La Pointe, Wisconsin, died after 1854 son Joseph Guernon and Nowanankkee b-1794;

Indiana, birth 1841 or 1843? Joseph Lafontaine Metis son Francois Topeah Lafontaine b-1810 and Catherine Pocongoqliah Richardville (1812-1850) Metis

(I)-Donald McLeod (1815/21-1903) he went to sea age 12 yrs, joined HBC (1841-1853) Columbia Department and Montana.  Donald McLeod had two successive wives and ten children. Probably in the late 1840s, he took as his wife, Thérèse, a woman from the Nez Perce or Spokane nations. They had two children, 
    (II)-Pierre Paul McLeod Metis b-1849
    (II)-Martine Marceal McLeod Metis 
Around 1850, Thérèse, fate unknown, was replaced by Rosalie Morigeau (1833-84), of mixed descent. Their children were
    (II)-Elizabeth McLeod Metis (1851-1891), 
    (II)-Alexander McLeod Metis (1854-1938), 
    (II)-Margaret McLeod Metis (1855-1936), 
    (II)-Frank McLeod Metis (1859-1921), 
    (II)-Celeste McLeod Metis b-1860
    (II)-Daniel McLeod Metis (1867-1937), 
    (II)-Malcolm McLeod Metis (1870-1944) and 
    (II)-Richard McLeod Metis (1874-1945).

Rupert's House, birth (II)-Mary Miles, Metis daughter (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles Sr. (1795-1870) to (II)-Elizabeth (Betsey) Sinclair, Metis (1805-1878); married William Hamilton  

(I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) ordered Lower Fort Garry enclosed by loop-holed walls and bastions because the French half-breeds at Upper Fort Garry were troublesome.

(I)-George Simpson (1787-1860)  wrote London of the need to check the Roman Catholic influence which is injurious to the Company’s interest.  Simpson authorized over a dozen men to take Indian wives at Fort Stikine with the Tsimshian People.  He believed it would be good for the trade.  He also encouraged 116 Red River Metis to migrate to the Oregon Territory this year.

Governor George Simpson express canoe(I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) in an Express Canoe on one of his many inspection tours.  Express canoes are manned by the best canoe men in the employ of the Company who are mostly Iroquois and Metis Iroquois..  


(I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) visited Radium Hot Springs, B.C.

(II)-James Sinclair Metis (1806/11-1856) born Oxford House son (I)-William Sinclair (1766-1818) and Nahovway Cree, worked for HBC (1841-1856) and likely earlier led a party of 23 Metis families representing 120 people from Red River to Columbia District'  Some members were 
    Julian Berner Metis (1794-1849) NWC (1813-1821) Columbia District, HBC (1821-1823) Columbia and New Caledonia
    Joseph Klyne Metis (1816-1849) son Michel Klyne; HBC (1829-1843) Columbia District
    Pierre St Germain Metis (1790-1870) NWC (1810-1819) HBC (1819-1822) Frankinlin Expedition, HBC (1822-1834) 
    John V. Campbell
They traveled to Fort Edmonton, up the Bow River, ascended the Spray River, crossed White Man Pass, descended the Cross River to the Kootney Calley, and then ascended Sinclair creek the narrow Stanford Range to descend Sinclair Canyon, (Radium Hot Springs.  They passed by Lake Pend d'Oreille and reached Fort Walla Walla on the Columbia River, October 4.  That night the fort burned down and the settlers saved the stock and effects and most of the property was saved.  They continued to Fort Vancouver, arriving October 12, 1841.  Some contend the party was deserted by their Metis guide but were guided by a Cree Indian, Mackipitoon or Crooked Arm, this is highly unlikely as these men were season fur traders but it is likely they hired him for safe passage through Cree Country.    

The Factor, James Heron of Osnaburgh, noted the arrival, on June 26, of the first missionary, a Reverend William Mason of the Wesleyan Missionary Society from Lac Seul.  The Indians asked McKenzie:  What have these Black Robes came here for?  Did they come to destroy the Indians and their children?  We are resolved not to hear them.

Bishop Provencher wrote: "Secular priests will make slow progress; there is no unity in their views, without mentioning the fact that they put their hands to the plough only for a short time, which they always find too long."  He therefore turned to the Oblates of Mary Immaculate (OMI) for help. 

Between 1840 and1860, it is estimated that 30,000 Black Americans used the 'underground railway' to escape slavery and migrate to the land of the free in Canada.  Most would eventually become mixed blood Canadians.

The Metis were described as dark of skin, bois brule or scorched wood.  They were sometimes call Indian, but were neither European nor Indian.  They were described as a fine race, tall, straight, well proportioned, lightly formed and extremely active and enduring.  Their chests, shoulders and waists are of that symmetrical shape so seldom found among the broad-waisted, short-necked English, or the flat chested, long necked Scotch; or so says a British lord.  They are a proud people, priest ridden, brave and honest.  These Metis are much given to song and merriment, generous hospitality and night-long dancing, caring for this day's joys and letting tomorrow go hang.

Pig's Eye, Minnesota is renamed St. Paul by Father Lucian Galter when he built the first church.  It was originally named Iminijaska; meaning White Rock, Mendota, Little Settlement and Fountain Cove before being named Pig's Eye after French Metis trader Pierre Parrant, born 1777 Sault Ste Marie.

The Russian Fort Ross in California is sold to John Sutter, a Swiss entrepreneur on whose land gold was discovered in 1848. 

Pierre Bottineau Metis (1810/17-1895) and his two brothers Severe Bottineau Metis b-1814 and Charles Bottineau Metis settled in St. Paul and purchased of Benjamin Gervais, a small tract of land, later known as Baptist Hill. Pierre Bottineau Metis (1810/17-1895) , Charles Bottineau Metis  along with six others built the first house of worship.

January 12: Red River, (I)-Allen McDonnell (1778-1859) is reported interested in "Miss Cock Eye McGillis" as a wife but they did not marry.  It would appear he abandoned his wife Margaret a native women and some of his daughters.

February 8:   Kamloops, New Caledonia (British Columbia), death (I)-Samel Black born May 3, 1780 Scotland, died 1841.  He joined the XY Company that had merged with the North West Company in 1804.  He was stationed at Kamloops for the Hudson Bay Company, to become Chief Factor in 1837 of the Thompson River District.  He was never popular with the natives ("a man of notorious bad character") and they eventually killed him in 1841.

February 14: Red River, baptism, (II)-Abraham Foulds, Metis son  (I)-John Foulds (1798-1868) employed HBC (1821-1825) mostly Fort Gary, Red River, and (II)-Mary Fidler, Metis born after 1805 (maybe 1811?)

February 21; Red River, baptism (II)-Margaret Brown, Metis, daughter, (I)-Henry Brown, b-1799, Orkney and Isabella Slater b-1806, Metis

March 14:  Fort Severn: birth (II)-William Cromartie, Metis, son (I)-John Cromartie (1792-1878) Orkney, employed HBC (1812-1870), and 1839 (II)-Catherine Park, Metis, (1816/17-1860) daughter (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) and Margaret Metisse (1796-1853)

May 28:  Red River, birth (III)-Sarah Daniel, Metis, died January 15, 1847, daughter  (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830)and Madeleine McKay b-1825 Red River;

June:  At Red River, the great semiannual bison (buffalo) hunt is organized with over 400 hunters dressed in buckskin or blue woolen capotes, sashed in scarlet, armed with muzzle loading rifles and mounted on splendid horses.  Another 200 men are assigned to the spare stock and herded the draft animals, while 1,000 women and children walked or rode with the camping gear in the carts.  These Metis of Red River region outnumbered the Europeans 10 to 1- some 5,000 of them.  Leaving St. Boniface for Pembina, still more Metis swelled the hunting expedition.  This year they had to travel 20 days and 250 miles before bison (buffalo) were sighted.  About 1,375 bison (buffalo) were taken on the first day; the equivalent of 225 pounds for every man, woman and child in Red River.  The meat and hides that were sold to the Hudson Bay Company fetched more sterling than all the farms products and crops which were mostly worked by the English and Scottish, including their half-breed (Metis) descendents.  

June 15: Red River, baptized  (II)-William Millar, Metis died August 30, 1843, son (I)-Robert Millar b-1798 married Red River about 1840 (II)-Elizabeth Setter, Metis 

July 3: Governor (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) and his journal keeper (I)-Edward Martin Hopkins (1820-1893), departed Red River in an express canoe for Fort Ellice, Carlton House, Fort Pitt, Edmonton House, then on to the head waters of the Red Deer River, to the Bow River near Banff, through the Simpson Pass, to Fort Colvile, all in 6 weeks and five days.  They pressed on arriving Fort Vancouver by August 25, 1841.  Then off to Honolulu.

July 10:  Moose Factory, birth (II)-Albert Swanson, Metis son (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and Frances Robinson, Metis (1821-1876) daughter John Robinson of Michipicoten  (Northern Ontario) and Indian woman.  

August 1; Red River  baptism/birth (III)-Margaret Whitford, Metis daughter (II)-James Whitford, Jr. Metis and Mary Spence; 

August 3:  Red River, baptism (II)-Ann Firth, Metis daughter (I)-Thomas Firth b-1796/99 to Elizabeth a native woman  

August 8:   Sault Ste Marie marriage Stephen R wood b-1810 and Emeline Johnson.  Witness Adaline Jones, Susan J. Fowles, and Mary J. Newcomb.  Witness Frs Garnoun and Wm Parole (illegible).

October:  John Bidwell (1819-1900) led the first overland settlers, numbering 34 into the Sacramento Valley in Mexican California.  Twenty of the 34 migrants returned east by next spring. 

November 7: Red River baptism (II)-Alexander Logan, Metis, son (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) and 2nd wife Mrs. Sarah Ingham (1803-1886) likely Metis: married Maria Lane

November 7: Red River baptism (II)-James Logan, Metis, died pre-1866 son (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) and 2nd wife Mrs. Sarah Ingham (1803-1886) likely Metis: 

December 21: Red River, baptism (III)-Catherin Swain, Metis, died August 1, 1846 daughter (II)-James Swain Jr. Metis (1799-1887) and Margaret Racette b-1809



James Pierson Beckwourth (1798-1866) and a group of free traders built an Adobe type Fortress at the confluence of Fountain Creek and the Arkansas River Mexico Territory (Pueblo Colorado).

Sophie Cadotte born 1842 Red River daughter Michel Cadotte.

Adolphus Chamberlain aka Francois Dolphis Chamberland (1819-1888) married to Julia Ann Watichie daughter of George Waticie, Iroquois and Chinook woman, listed in the 1842 Oregon census.  Joined HBC (Lachine, Quebec (1837-1841), settler Willamette 1840's.   

(I)-James Stewart Clouston (1826-1874) brother (I)-Robert Clouston (1821-18580 joined HBC 1842-1874) assigned (1859-1869) Montreal & (1869-1874) Lake Superior.  Married (II)-Margaret Miles Metis (1828-1874) daughter (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles (1795-1830) and (II)-Elizabeth Betsey Sinclair Metis (1805-1878).   Three children are recorded
    (II)-Edward Seaborn Clouston Metis (1849-1912)
    (II)-James Stewart Couston Metis (1855-1860) Lachine, Quebec
    (II)-John Miles Clouston Metis (1859-1859) Lachine, Quebec
    (II)-Violet Cloustion born (baptised?) July 24, 1871 Moose Factory, James was in Moose Factory (1843-1854) but this child is in question?

Pic, Lake Superior, marriage (I)-Cuthbert Cummings (1787-1870) employed NWC is at Fort Dauphin or Quinioique (Manitoba) 1804, which was established 1741.  He married Susette Indian or Metis girl and had 7 children.  His second marriage 1842 Lake Superior to Jane McMurray b-March 4, 1778 daughter Thomas McMurray d-1795 and Jane Izenhoult, widow Tobias  Cuthbert employed HBC (1821-1844) retired to Colborne, Ontario.

Mathew Esquinamow (1842-1935) born Painted Hills HBC (1866-1922) James Bay retired Fort George, a widower with 4 kids
    Richard Esquinamow b-1878 Fort George HBC (1916-1922) James Bay retired Fort George, widower 2 kids
    William Esquinanow b-1879 Fort George HBC (1913-1925) James Bay

Pierre Genaille b-1818 St. Philipe, Quebec joined HBC at York Factory (1842-1862) English River and from 1847 Swan River, married 1842 Charlotte Gagnant dit Lafleur Metis b-1842 York or English River
    Antoine Genaille Metis b-1843 English River
    Marie Genaille Metis b-1844 English River
    Josephte Genaille Metis b-1845 English River
    Pierre Genaille Metis 
    Harriet Genaille Metis 
    Sophie Genaille Metis
    Joseph Genaille Metis
    Flora Genaille Metis
    Louise Genaille Metis
    David Genaille Metis
    Sophie Genaille Metis
    Alex Genaille Metis
    Francois Genaille Metis
    Josephte Genaille Metis
    Christine Genaille Metis

Matawagamingue birth (II)-Thomas Hardesty, (1842-1875) Metis son (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) employed HBC (1817-1861) and (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1876)

The following people are likely related;
Jean Baptiste LaRance (LaFrance) b-1790 NWT in Red River in 1838
Francois LaFrance b-1791 joined HBC (1827-1828) from Montreal assigned New Caledonia
Bazil LaRance b-1799 joined HBC (1826-1827) Fort Vancouver
Supplie Larance b-1808 joined HBC (1831-1851) New Caledonia
Theodore Larance b-1811 joined HBC (1832-1854 Columbia District
Bazil Larance (LaRance - LaFrance) b-1795/98 (from Berthier Country in Western Quebec) joined HBC (1816-1818) Montreal, assigned (1818-1819) Peace River District, (1819-1820) Fort Wedderburn (aka Fort Chipewyan) Athabasca District altered between noth Districts (1820-1826), (1827-1828) traveled York Factory, Saskatchewan District and Columbia District; (1828-1847) Saskatchewan District Fort Edmonton, Fort Carlton, retired Red River 1847; married Agathe Michel L'Iroquoise
    Basile Larance Metis b-1831 Columbia District married Marguerite Desjardins
    Charles Larance Metis b-1834 Fort Edmonton d-1872 Pembina married Marie Anbichion
    Iean Baptiste Larance Metis b-1836 Fort Edmonton married Josephte Hamelin b-1839
    Joseph Larance Metis b-1842 NWT married Clara Farquarhson b-1847 daughter John Ferguson (Farquarhson) (1809-1875) and Monique Hamlin b-1832 Pembina

Fort Simpson, baptism (II)-Nancy (Anne) Lee Lewes, Metis (1842-1930) daughter (I)-John Lee Lewes (1792-1872) and (II)-Francoise (Frances) Ballenden, Metis (1790-1800) 

(III)-Joseph McKay, Metis b-1842 son (II)-John Richards McKay Metis, (1792-1877/87) and (II)-Harriet Ballenden Metis  (1795/1800-1854): 

The American Fur Company, under the control of Ramsey Crooks, effectively went out of business.

Fort Vancouver, marriage, Charles Desroches dit Quebec, on assignment with the H.B.C. married Nancy Kilemniks Chinook, a Salishan Indian (1825-1854).

John B. Gurnoe, for years, carried the mail between Sault Ste Marie and Saginaw, making four round trips a winter on snow shoes.  His mail bag and provisions weighed 200 pounds.  These were held on his shoulders and fastened over his forehead with a strap.  He camped out in the open at night.  This trip of ten days and 400 miles travel is made for twenty five dollars a round trip.  John McLoughlin, a Metis and son of Chief Factor John McLoughlin Sr. (1784-1857) of the Columbia District (Oregon), is murdered at Stikine River.  Governor (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) and John McLoughlin have long been at logger heads over the treatment of American settlers into the Columbia District of Canada, namely Oregon.  (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) wanted to use a heavy hand and treat the immigrants ruthlessly.  McLoughlin refused, being a humanitarian, and dealt with them kindly.  McLoughlin retired in 1846 and spent the rest of his life at Oregon City.

Joseph Larance, Metis, b-1842, N.W.T., son Bazil Larence b-1789/95 and Agathe Michel L'Iroquoise; married Clara Farquarhson Ferguson, born January 22, 1847, N.W.T. daughter John Ferguson (Farquarhson) (1809-1875) and Monique Hamelin born October 12, 1822 Pembina River.

Rupert's House, birth (II)-Harriet (Harriette) Miles, Metis daughter (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles Sr. (1795-1870) to (II)-Elizabeth (Betsey) Sinclair, Metis (1805-1878); married July 25, 1868 Brockville, Adam Hudspeth 

Joseph Rondeau (Rondo) settled St. Paul Landing before moving to the Falls of St. Antony, Minnesota.

The protestant missionaries at Red River from 1823 to 1842 have never stepped out of Red River to preach to the heathen.  Their plans were to civilize and evangelize the heathens.

The United States Congress passed the Homestead Act, allowing 160 acre farms to all homesteaders who would live on them and farm the wilderness.  What they didn't tell the homesteaders is that only the poorest-quality land was given away.  Good farms of 160 acres cost about $1,000.  They also didn't tell the folks the land was Mexican Territory which included California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming and Colorado.  Canada owned the Columbia Territory of British Columbia, Oregon, Washington,  and Idaho.

Fort Uinta, Mexican Territory (Utah), Joseph Williams, a Methodist minister reported that (VI)-Antoine Robidoux (1794-1860) was running a slave trade of Indian women and children.  His men were involved in debauchery with the women, traded the women among themselves and eventually sold them to the Mexicans.

Jim Bechworth and a group of fur traders constructed an adobe type fortress at the confluence of Fountain Creek and the Arkansis River, Mexican Territory (Colorado).

January 4: Oxford House, birth (II)-Fanny Isbister, Metis baptized July 17, 1842 Red River, daughter  (I)-John Isbister aka Isbester (1796-1883) and Frances (Fanny) (Essessepow) Sinclair Metis or Indian, b-1813

March:  Governor (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) and his journal keeper (I)-Edward Martin Hopkins (1820-1893) arrived Fort Vancouver from Honolulu this month.  Hopkins returned to York Factory and back to London this year.

May:  An Indian called Lobster arrived at Lac Seul, claiming a mission known as the White Dog is being built on the Winnipeg River.

June 6:  Red River, birth (II)-Harriet Isabella Bird, Metis daughter  (I)-James Bird (1773-1856), and Mary Kelly Lowman (1801-1873) Metis or Indian, 

October 4:  La Pointe of Lake Superior, in the Territory of Wisconsin, Treaty with the Chippewa Indians of the Mississippi, and Lake Superior.

Unceded lands belonging to the Indians of Fond de Lac, Sandy Lake, and Mississippi bands, shall be the common property and home of all Indians, party to this treaty.  

The Indians have expressed a strong desire to have some provision made for their half-breed (Metis) relatives.

Signing for each band:

Crow Wing River - Po-go-ne-gi-shik, Son-go-com-ick, 
Sandy Lake          - Ka-non-do-ur-uin-zo, Na-tum-e-gaw-bon
Gull Lake              - Ua-bo-jig-, Pay-pe-si-gon-de-bay
Red Ceder Lake   - Kui-ui-sen-shis, Ott-taw-wance
Po-ke-gom-maw  - Bai-ie-jig, Show-ne-aw
Wisconsin River    - Ki-uen-zi, Wi-aw-bis-ke-kut-te-way
Lac de Flambeau  - A-pish-ka-go-gi, May-tock-cus-e-guay, She-maw-gon-e
Lake Bands          - Ki-ji-ua-be-she-shi, Ke-kon-o-tum,
Fon du Lac           - Shin-goob, Na-gan-nab, Mong-o-xat
La Pointe              - Citchi-waiskey, Mi-zi, Ta-qua-gone-e
Onlonagan            - O-kon-di-kan, Kis-ke-taw-wac
Ance                    - Pe-na-shi, Guck-we-san-sish
Vieux Desert        - Ka-she-osh-e, Medge-waw-gwaw-wot
Mille Lac              - Ne-qua-ne-be, Ua-shash-ko-kum, No-din
St. Croix               - Be-zhi-ki, Ka-bi-na-be, Ai-aw-bens
Snake River          - Sha-go-bi
Chippewa River    - Ua-be-she-shi, Que-way-zhan-sis
Lac Courtulle        - Ne-na-nang-eb, Be-bo-kon-uen, Ki-uen-zi

Signing for government:

Henry Blancford - interpreter
Samuel Ashman - interpreter
Justin Rice
Charles H. Oakes
William A. Aitkin
William Brewster
Charles M. Borup
Z Platt
C.H. Beaulieau
L.T. Jamison
James P. Scott
Cyrus Mendenhall
L.M. Warren  

November 13:  Red River, baptized (II)-James Lillie son (I)-Daniel Lillie aka (Lilley, Lilly & Lily) to 2nd wife Mary Anne Richards, half breed (1812-1847)



La Pointe, Madeleine Island, Lake Superior had a population of 390 Chippewa and 218 Mixed-Blood.

Pierre Denis Dorval married 1843 Fort Vancouver Emelie Durival daughter of As-kal-wilsh a Chinook

Red River, baptism, (III)-David Fidler, Metis son (II)-Charles Fidler, Metis b-1798 and likely Metis or Indian girl.

John Charles Fremont is at the Dalles on the Columbia River.

(I)-Andrew Graham Ballenden Bannatyne (1829-1889) joined the Hudson Bay Company, but quit in 1851 to become a free trader.  He married the daughter of Andrew McDermot.

(I)-William Cromartie (Cromarty) b-1814 Orkney, died 1875/76 Fort Langley, B.C.,  joined HBC (1843-1844) York, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1872) Columbia District as cooper.  William Cromarty married Salum’mia [aka Jane, Elizabeth and Jenny] (1830-1869) and had seven children:     
    Elizabeth Cromarty Metis (1847-1883), 
    William Cromarty Metis (1848-1881), 
    Ann Cromarty Metis b-1850 
    James Cromarty Metis  (1853-1936), 
    David Cromarty Metis (1855-1884), 
    Mary Cromarty Metis (1858-1889)
    Samuel Cremarty Metis (1869-1923).

Mark Eshkakapo Indian, Eskimo or Metis d-1902, HBC (1843-1901) Rupert's River, Moose Factory and James Bay, married with children and grandchildren

Joseph Everette Metis (1823-1887) joined HBC (1843-1870) Trout Lake (NWT??), married 1846 Nancy McKay
    William J. Everette Metis HBC (1865-1886) Trout Lake, Red River, Norway House
    Julie Chalifioux Everette Metis

Joseph Lafournaise aka Lacarte dit Laboucan (Luboucan ) b-1777/80 Quebec a free trader from Saskatchewan (Alberta) (1804-1825), a Catholic is at Red River with Stone wife, 1 Metis son over 16, 1 Metis sons under 16, 2 Metis daughters over 15  

(I)-William Douglas Lane (1819-1882) joined HBC (1843-1872) assigned Moose (1843-1846), Norway House (1846-1848), Red River (1848-1872)
1st married Gibeault Metis died before 1870
    (II)-Edouard Gibeault Lane Metis
    (II)-Elizabeth (Lizzie) Lane Metis b-1862
2nd marriage 1872 Elizabeth Lee Lewis Metis (1837-1897) daughter (I)-John Lee Lewes (1792-1872) and (II)-Jane (Jean) [Francois] Ballenden Metis  (1790-1900) 
    (II)-unnamed Metis baby Lane (1873-1873)
    (II)-Maria Jan Laura Lewes Lane Metis (1875-1961) married Kirby
    (II)-Anne Alberta Alexandrina Metis (1877-1970) married Wilks
    (II)-Lillian Georgina Ballendine Lane Metis (1879-1957) married Valentine Gerald 
    (II)-Quinn Lane Metis b-1903 

Antoine Xavier Laplante Metis possible son Laurent Sauve (Laplante) (1794-1858) and Josephte, Tlalam/Tsik, d-1848); joined HBC Columbia District (1843-1846), assigned Saskatchewan, New Caledonia and Western Departments, free man in 1864. 

James Scarborough, d-1855, an Essexman of the HBC married Ann Elizabeth a Chinook woman from the village of Chinookville across the river from Fort Astoria.  They homesteaded 640 acres and had four sons, only two survived, one named Ned d-1925. 

Complaints keep mounting since John Macallum took over operations of the Red River Boarding School. Letitia Hargroves' wife, in September wrote:  Macallum's school is going to wreck. Children who have had duck, geese and venison 3 times a day are supposed to suffer from breakfast of milk and water with dry bread, suffer severe floggings and, confinement after any fault and the total want of the following meal. The boys and girls are constantly fainting. He makes the girls strip off their Indian stockings and adopt English fashion then walks them through freezing snow. The illness and deaths of a number of the Schools students is of grave concern among some of the colony.  This type of atrocity would not be stopped until 1967 as it was incorporated as part of the English culture.

American settlers by the hundreds, and later by the thousands stream, into the Hudson Bay Company's Columbia District (Oregon Territory).  Actually, 1,000 came this year, driving 5,000 head of cattle.  The Company began to realize they were losing their position and Britain was not prepared to go to war to retain the old North West Company trading region of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana; now called the Columbia District and the Oregon Territory but the intruding Americans.  The Canadians dominated this region for the past 35 years, until this year when 1,000 settlers entered the Oregon Region and 1,500 in 1844.  This migration would be dwarfed by the gold rush of 1849.

The first American Governor of future California, Peter Burnett, said, "With our trusty rifles we should drive out the British usurpers", although the Canadian Fur Traders had Governed the country since 1818.

The Red River settlement has over 5,000 souls of whom 55% are Roman Catholic.  Out of 870 families, 571 are Metis, 152 are French Canadian, 110 are Scots, 22 are English, with the balance being of various nationalities. 

Thomas Farnham wrote about the Gosiute Indians of bleak Skull Valley (Iosepa, Utah) "these poor creatures are hunted in the spring of the year when they are weak and helpless... and, when taken, are fattened, carried to Santa Fe and sold as slaves."   As a result of this land clearance the Mormons imported from Hawaii recent converts to the Mormon faith, into this valley of death.  The settlement of Iosepa, (aka Josephe), Utah was doomed to failure and most Hawaiians deserted not only the settlement but the faith.

January 15; Red River, baptism (II)-Jean Brown, Metis, son, (I)-Henry Brown, b-1799, Orkney and Isabella Slater b-1806, Metis

February 6: Christopher Houstan "Kit" Carson (1809-1868) married his third wife Josefa Jaramillo b-1829 and had 8 kids and they settled at Arkansas Valley of Colorado

March: Lake of Two Mountains, Chats Department. marriage (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) employed HBC (1821-1846) and his 4th wife Elizabeth Cameron, d-1855 children Georgina and Alexandria 

March 14: Red River, baptism, (III)-Jane Danial, Metis, died March 31, 1843, daughter (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) and Madeleine McKay b-1825 Red River;

May 2: Red River, baptism  (III)-Catherines Beads, Metis, died October 25, 1843, daughter (II)-John Beads, Metis, b-1795 Rupert's Land, employed HBC (1814-1856), and Margaret Indian or Metis (1800-1856).

June 10:  Moose Factory, birth (II)-Alexander Swanson, Metis son (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and Frances Robinson, Metis (1821-1876) daughter John Robinson of Michipicoten  (Northern Ontario) and Indian woman.  

June 17:  The Hudson Bay Company's anti-liquor regulation, approved at Red River, claimed to limit further degeneration of the natives but was more probably for cutting the cost of trade.  Sophia Thomas, who died in 1861, daughter Thomas Thomas, married Reverend William Mason.

July 23:  Fort Severn: birth (II)-Margaret Cromartie, Metis, daughter (I)-John Cromartie (1792-1878) Orkney, employed HBC (1812-1870), and 1839 (II)-Catherine Park, Metis, (1816/17-1860) daughter (I)-John Park (1768/71-1847) and Margaret Metisse (1796-1853)

October 27: Red River, baptized  (II)-Margaret Millar, Metis daughter (I)-Robert Millar b-1798 married Red River about 1840 (II)-Elizabeth Setter, Metis 



Jean Baptiste Arcan Metis b-1844 White Horse Plains, Red River son Joseph Arcan Sr. b-1778 and Indian or Metis girl; joined HBC (1864-1866) Saskatchewan & Athabasca, retired Red River, married Nancy McKay b-1849 daughter Angus McKay 
    Napoleon Arcan Metis b-1863 

Father Darveau is at Le Pas where rival Henry Budd ,a native, is acting as teacher and catechist.  Darveau drowned in June while working Le Pas.  Rumors circulated that Budd may have been involved in the death. 

Matawagamingue birth (II)-Charlotte Clara Hardesty, Metis daughter (I)-Richard Hardisty (1792-1865) employed HBC (1817-1861) and (II)-Margaret Sutherland, Metis (1802-1876/78)

(I)-Robert Hamilton (1826-1891) joined HBC (1844-1876) assigned from Tadoussac King's Posts 1844-1846 to Moose to Edmonton House.  Married 1863 (II)-Annie Seaborn Miles Metis b-1838 Ruperts House daughter (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles (1795-1870) and (II)-Elizabeth (Betsey) Sinclaie Metis (1805-1878)
    (II)-Miles Hamilton Metis b-1864 likely Brockville, Ontario
    (II)-Max Hamilton Metis
    (II)-William Hamilton Metis
    (II)-unnamed Metis daughter (1875-1876) 

(I)-Rev. James Hunter (1817-1881) Clergyman of Church Missionary Society at the Pas, 1854-1864) Archdeacon of Cumberland at St Andrews, Red River, 1864 returned to England, appears to have abandoned wife and kids?
Married 1848, (III)-Jean Ross Metis b-1822, daughter (II)-Donald Ross Sr. Metis and Mary Mcbeath of Norway house who placed his 10 kids in the Metis boarding School Red River between (1833-1856), (II)-Donald Ross Sr is son (I)-Hugh Ross b-1793 and (II)-Sarah Short Metis b-1795;  children are (III)-Jessy Ross Metis married (I)-Robert Clouston (1821-1858), (III)-Roderick Ross Metis and (III)-Donald Ross Metis Jr. (1840-1878) married (III)-Ann McKenzie Metis; 
    (II)-Donald Ross Metis bapt 1852 Christ Church, Cumberland
    (II)-Mary Arabella Ross Metis b-1853 d-1858 St Andrews, Red River 
    (II)-Robert James Ross Metis bapt-1855, St Andrews, Red River 
    (II)-Francis Beseridge Ross Metis bapt-1857, St Andrews, Red River  
    (II)-Charles Bernard Roderick Ross Metis bapt-1860, St Andrews , Red River 
    (II)-Margaret Anderson Ross Metis bapt-1862, St Andrews , Red River 

Duncan McDonald Metis b-1825 son Donald McDougald and Nancy Ferguson joined HBC (1844-1849) Norway House, married 1852 Elizabeth Tait b-1832 daughter John Tait and Elisabeth (Brown)
    Mary Ann McDonald Metis b-1852 married Herbert Chapman Taylor b-1850
    John McDonald Metis b-1854
    Donald McDonald Metis b-1856  
    Hannah McDonald Metis b-1858 married Andrew Truthwrite
    Myrtle McDonald Metis b-1860 married John F. McDonald
    Sarah McDonald Metis b-1863
    Margaret McDonald Metis b-1864
    Elizabeth McDonald Metis b-1866
    Catherine McDonald Metis (1868-1882)
    Clara McDonald Metis b-1871
    Thomas McDonald Metis b-1876

Fort Benton birth (II)-Jeremiah (Jerry) Potts Metis son (I?)-Andrew Potts and Blackfoot Indian woman

John A MacDonald joined the dreaded Orange Order of British North America.  The Orange Order has been accused by many historians of bringing old world quarrels to the new world.  This is true, but many others from Europe also dragged their evils to America.  The Orange Order pushes for Irish Protestantism. 

The official (Hudson Bay Company) recognized that the population in Red River had grown from ninety Hudson Bay Company people (Excludes Metis and Native) in 1912 to five thousand, one hundred and forty eight, mostly Metis, at this date (excluding most Natives).  This was a pathetic attempt by English historians to claim the English created Red River des Metis.

In early summer, Bishop George Jehoshaphat Mountain of Montreal ordained the infamous John Macallum of the Red River Boarding School as a priest in the Church of England, despite the numerous complaints of savagery and dropping attendance of his school. The Bishop believed the School was one of a superior order, even though the teaching of Latin, Greek, Euclid, English literature and geography were neither interesting nor useful to the young teen aged youngsters of mixed blood. Donald Ross of Norway House, who from 1833 to 1856 placed one or more of his ten children in the Red River Boarding School, warned Macallum that a current of unfavorable opinion existed in regard to his schools, but more particularly in the female department. Macallum was fully aware of the numerous unfavorable opinions against his person. Why Donald Ross or some other parents did not lay a thrashing upon Macallum is unknown. The Red River Boarding School had some supporters such as Richard Hardisty who sent his sons, Joseph, William, Richard and George and had plans to send Henry. Hardisty, however, would not send his daughter Mary, likely because of the Donald Ross comments. Reverend Macallum died on October 3, 1849. Colin Campbell McKenzie and Roderick Ross were considered the first scholars of the Red River Boarding School, as they went on to Cambridge and returned to the North West. Peter Jacobs graduated and became a missionary but not in the North West.

Father Jean Baptiste Thibault is doggedly reconverting many of the Methodist converts around Edmonton.  Minister Evens might have recaptured his converts, but he accidentally killed his interpreter Thomas Hassell.  As a result of Father Thibault’s predatory converting of Methodist followers, Governor (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) issued a policy that the Company stood for liberty of conscience, so long as missionaries did not interfere with one another’s converts.

A priest named Bellcour from the White Dog Mission on the Winnipeg River is claimed by the Lobster to claim that the traders are cheating the Indians.  This is according to the records of McKenzie who claims these priests have more influence over the Indians than the Company's missionaries.  He also complained that the priests could get the Indians to do work for nothing, which they would not do for the Company for payment.

A sudden increase in Lake Superior shipping follows the discovery of iron deposits of the Marquette Range and copper on the Keweenaw Peninsula. The Keweenaw mines, between 1850 and1875, provided 75% of all copper mined in the U.S.A.

Joseph Smith (1805-1844) founder of the Church of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) died this year and more people spoke out that he had forced married women and young girls to have sex with him in the name of religion.  He believed polygamy was gods eternal law and that all who wish salvation must obey it.  He lied to the faithful saying he didn't have sex with numerous women and said god had instructed him to lie (a pious lie) to the church.  He said he believed the people were not ready to hear the truth about polygamy. He forbad members to speak the truth of Mormon history on threat of excommunication.  He didn't explain his justification for raping other men's wives.

January 17: Red River, baptism, (III)-Mary Danial, Metis, daughter (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) and Madeleine McKay b-1825 Red River;

January 31: Oxford House, birth (II)-Mary Isbister, Metis baptized August 18, 1844 Red River, daughter  (I)-John Isbister aka Isbester (1796-1883) and Frances (Fanny) (Essessepow) Sinclair Metis or Indian, b-1813

The USA violates the Treaty of Limits signed in 1828, by which the United States acknowledged that Texas was part of Mexican territory.  The USA begins annexation of Texas 

June 3; Red River  baptism/birth (III)-Donald Whitford, Metis son (II)-James Whitford, Jr. Metis and Mary Spence; 

July 2:  Red River, baptized Mary Anne Richards, half breed (1812-1847) 2nd wife Daniel and her son (II)-James Lillie son (I)-Daniel Lillie aka (Lilley, Lilly & Lily) 

September 9: Indiana, birth Archangel Lafontaine Metis child Francois Topeah Lafontaine b-1810 and Catherine Pocongoqliah Richardville (1812-1850) Metis

September 10:  Moose Factory, birth (II)-Thomas Swanson, Metis son (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and Frances Robinson, Metis (1821-1876) daughter John Robinson of Michipicoten  (Northern Ontario) and Indian woman.  

October 22:  Red River, baptism, (III)-Elizabeth Foulds, Metis, daughter, (II)-Samuel Foulds (Folds, Foldes) Metis (1803-1870) to Nancy (Ann & Anne) Calder, Metis (1803-1896); married April 27, 1865, (III)-William Fidler Metis bapt 1849.

October 22: Red River, baptism  (III)-Maria Beads, Metis, died April 7, 1845, daughter (II)-John Beads, Metis, b-1795 Rupert's Land, employed HBC (1814-1856), and Margaret Indian or Metis (1800-1856).

October 22:  Louis David Riel born St. Boniface. Hhis father, a Metis, was a leader of the free trade movement and his mother was Julie Lagimodiere b-1809 from Pembina/Red River and Fort Edmonton fame.  The Metis freemen were doing business with the St. Paul, Metis in  Chippewa Country (Minnesota) despite the English forbidding this practice.  This year four unnamed Metis, and Peter Garrick, Henry Cook and J. M. Laughlin made the journey to St. Paul to free trade, taking one hundred and twenty days for the trip.  They claimed to be one of the first to travel the overland route in Red River carts, having to cut their way in many places.  This claim, of course, was a figment of their imagination as the Metis were using this route for over fifty years.

December 10:  Red River, baptism (II)-Jane Firth, Metis daughter (I)-Thomas Firth b-1796/99 to Elizabeth a native woman  



Fathers Alexander Antonin Tache (1823-1894)' and Casimer Aubert arrived at Red River, two of the many Oblates to service the North West Territories.  Tache reported that the Metis are nearly all gifted with a great power of observation.  On September 5, as an example to other natives, a Saulteaux (Ojibwa) was hung at Red River, being convicted by the Governor of killing another Saulteaux (Ojibwa) and a Sioux.  The Metis Nation petitioned the Governor, asking him to explain the rules of law as it now exists.  The Hudson Bay Company had no basis in law to justify their actions, and the Hudson Bay Company in future years would deny committing this act of murder and other acts against the Natives.

Charles Cavileer, a saddler, settled in St. Paul, Minnesota.

(II)-Alexander Christie Metis Jr. b-1818 Rupert's House son (I)-Alexander Christie Sr. (1783-1872) and (II)-Ann Thomas Metis b-1796; employed HBC 1845 Fort Gary

John Thompson Dunn writing about the fur traders says; having passed their youth in the wilderness, in constant intercourse with the Indians, and removed from civilized society, they lapse with natural facility into habits of savage life.  They generally intermarry with the natives and, like them, have often a plurality of wives.   It's noteworthy the English and especially the Scots were inclined to a plurality of wives, the French were not so inclined..

York Factory joined HBC, (II)-John Patrick Cunningham Metis (1818-1870) son (I)-Patrick Cunningham (1789-1831) and Nancy Anne Bruce Metis (1794-1859); joined HBC and is assigned Athabasca, Columbia District, then back to Athabasca (1837-1845), then Red River (1845-1855), where he married and started his family.  On February 28, 1841, he married Margaret Mondion of Saskatchewan River at Rocky Mountain House. It appears that they had no children. Margaret may have died, as four and a half years later on September 15, 1846 at Lake St. Anne,(Alberta) he married Rosalie L’Hirondelle Metis, b-1829 Lesser Slave Lake. The eleven children from the second marriage were: 
    (II)-Catherine Cunningham Metis (1848-1848), b-Red River
    (II)-Samuel Cunningham Metis (1849-1919), b-Red River
    (II)-John Cunningham Metis (1851-1904), b-Red River
    (II)-James Cunningham Metis (1854-1940), b-Red River married 1829 Marie Metis b-1859
    (II)-Albert Cunningham Metis (1856-1925), b-Fort Edmonton, married 1884 Jesse b-1861
    (II)-Nancy Cunningham Metis (1858-1918), b-Fort Edmonton, married 1858 George Gagnon
    (II)-Edward Cunningham Metis (1862-1920), b-Fort Edmonton
    (II)-Daniel Cunningham Metis (1864-1955), b-Fort Edmonton, married Marie Beaudry b-1873
    (II)-Rachel Cunningham Metis (1866-1881), b-Fort Edmonton
    (II)-Henry (Cunningham Metis 1868-1955) b-St. Albert, married Mary Metis b-1874
    (II)-Alfred Cunningham Metis (1868-1936).b-St-Albert, narried 1893 Emilia Metis 
January 20, 1871  St. Albert, birth (III)- Jamuel Cunningham Jr Metis. son (II)- John Cunningham Sr., b-1815 and Rosalie L'Hyrondelle, b-1829, Lesser Slave Lake.  John died 1870 on a buffalo hunt?

Edward McKay Metis joined HBC (1845-1848) Swan River

(I)-Jonathan Moore joined HBC (1845-1850) York

Paschal and Sauverre St. Martin settled at the Falls of St. Anthony, Minnesota and claimed only about 50 people occupied this area.  It is noteworthy that by 1848 the population would be about 300 people. 

Marriage, Fort Hall, Snake River Country, Richard Grant Chief Factor, Fort Hall married (III)-Helene McDonald, Metis born 1811 Spokane House daughter (II)-Finan (Finnan) McDonald (1782-1851) and Marguerite Pend d'Oreille.  Grant had a son from a previous marriage named John Francois Grant born 1831 Fort des Prairies in Rupert's Land. 

Red River, born  (II)-Barbara Millar, Metis daughter (I)-Robert Millar b-1798 married Red River about 1840 (II)-Elizabeth Setter, Metis 

Father M. Thibeault visited Notre Dame Des Victoires, Red Deer Lake as a potential mission site; as Metis and Indian occupy it.  He also visited Ile-a-la-crosse in the English River District, both this year and next year.   Father G. Belcourt went with the Metis on their annual bison (buffalo) hunt.

The Church forced (VII)-Francois Xavier Garneau, 1809-1866, to change his History of Canada to remove uncomplimentary statements about the Roman Catholic Church.  The critics noted that in early Canadian historical accounts only the Catholic Church is incapable of error, whereas the non Catholics are continually making errors that the Church are quick to document.

Ten new vessels are hauled up the St. Mary into Lake Superior.

Pierre Bottineau, Metis (1810/17-1895), relocated from St. Paul to Nicollet Island at the site of the falls on the Mississippi River called Bottineau Prairie.  This became a meeting place of the Red River cart drivers on their way to St. Paul to trade.  He also ran the Mackinaw Transport boats up the Mississippi from St. Anthony in 1842, and by 1849, set up a trading post at Elk River.

The United States annexed Texas from Mexico starting the war of (1846-1848).  Americans believed it was their destiny to own all of North America to be taken by force of arms if necessary.

(VI)-Antoine Robidoux (1794-1860) was an interpreter in the American war with Mexico (1846-1848) for General Stephen Watts Kearny in the taking of New Mexico, Mexican Territory..

Miles Goodyear (1817-1849) built Fort Buenaventura near Ogden, Mexican Territory (Utah).  Ben Holladay and Andrew Goodyear and Miles wife Pomona Ute and their two children also resided here.  It is likely the Goodyear's resided here since 1836 and he traded the entire area to California.

Hawaiians make up almost half of the labor force at Fort Vancouver, Oregon Territory.  The Hawaiians called themselves Kanakes meaning Persons or Human Beings.  They proved to be excellent seamen and loyal fighters for the Hudson Bay Company.

February 5: Red River baptism (II)-Alice Logan, Metis, daughter (I)-Robert Logan employed NWC (1801-1814) and 2nd wife Mrs. Sarah Ingham (1803-1886) likely Metis: 

February 15; Red River, baptism (II)-William Brown, Metis, died August 1, 1846, son, (I)-Henry Brown, b-1799, Orkney and Isabella Slater b-1806, Metis

April 4: Red River, baptism (III)-Anne (Nancy) Swain, Metis, died August 15, 1846 daughter  (II)-James Swain Jr. Metis (1799-1887) and Margaret Racette b-1809 

June 17:   (II)-Paul Kane (1810-1871) departed Toronto on his painting expedition of the North West Territories.  He spent this summer in Lake Huron and the Lake Michigan region.

September:  Father Belcourt traveling with the Red River bison (buffalo) Hunt on its way to Cheyenne River, noted a considerable group of Metis around the Souris river where they had established their hivernant (a wintering camp) camp.



(I)-Owen Charles Beardmore joined HBC (1846-1851) first assigned Fort Temiscamingue (established 1685) then Columbia District in 1848, married Sahulla a Temiscamingue woman of the Stikine Nation
    (II)-Mary Ann Frances M. Beardmore Metis b-1849 

James Pierson Beckwourth (1798-1866) sided with the USA against Mexico and this year stole 1,800 horses from the Mexicans as spoils of war.

(II)-John Dugald Cameron (1777-1857) married (Churched?) 1846 Mary Lesperance Indian/Metis b-1770, possible relative of Alexis Bonamie L'Esperance b-1798 from Sorel, Quebec??

(II)-John Cumming Metis b-1820 son (I)-Cuthbert Cumming (1787-1870) and Susette Indian of Swan River, joined HBC (1841-1844) Columbia District, went to Red River 1844 joined HBC (1846-1854) as interpreter and retired 1854 Red River.

Red River, baptism, (III)-Emily Fidler, Metis daughter (II)-Charles Fidler, Metis b-1798 and likely Metis or Indian girl.

Louison Laronde dit La Ronde Jr. b-1825 Montreal son Louison Laronde dit La Ronde Sr b-1746 and Marguerite Champagne, joined HBC (1846-1857) English River and York Factory.  married Julia Morelle Metis b-1825 NWT likely daughter Joseph Morelle
    Joseph Laronde Metis
    Suzette Laronde Metis
    Alexander Laronde Metis
    Pelage Laronde Metis
    Innamed Metis son

The U.S.A. had an insatiable desire for more land and declared war on Mexico to acquire more territory.  Stephen Watts Kearny of the First Dragoons at Fort Leavenworth, was ordered to invade Mexico and take by force of arms, New Mexico and California. 

Geologist Abraham Gesner of Nova Scotia developed a process for making kerosene.  The hungry forties, and especially the terrible Irish potato famine, brought four hundred and thirty three thousand immigrants to Canada by 1851.
Mr. Ballantyne is in charge of the Sault Ste Marie, Hudson Bay Company Post. At this time Sault Ste Marie lists 126 families.

There are 80 steamboats on the upper lakes above Niagara; 59 brigs and barks (full-rigged sailboats) and 319 schooners (fore and aft rigged sailboats).

John Turner, alias the Falcon (about 1780-1846) who was a scout, interpreter and who was raised by the natives, who lived in early Red River and lately Sault Ste Marie, mysteriously disappeared, being under suspicion of murder.

Thomas Fitzpatrick, a.k.a. Broken Hand, some consider as being the greatest of the Mountain Men, traders and wagon masters, became Indian agent for the Upper Platte and Arkansas.

Thomas Morriseau Metis d-1848 joined HBC (1846-1848) Churchill

Louis Vasquez (1798-1868) son Benito Vasouez, a Spanard and Julie Papin, a French Canadian: married 1846 St. Louis widow Narcissa Land Ashcroft (1819-1899).

Burial ground, claimed by the Roman Catholic Church, contained the following persons:  Bossard, Joseph Wilson esquire, Jean Baptiste Contain, Madame Perrault, Raymond Mastat, Henry Seyer, Joseph Seyar Ne-be-naw-co-jing, Ambrois Surette, Jean Baptiste Lesage, Xavier Perrault, Jean Baptiste Crachier, Joseph Bossanneau, Joseph Boisenneau Jr., Lisk, Jean Baptiste Denomme, St. Marc Martin, Rev. W. Cammeron, John Driver, and Joshua Trott.

In Frenchtown a number of Metis families are living on the Hudson Bay Company's 30 acre farm to the west of Sault Ste Marie and directly north of the rapids:  Daveaux, Mousseau, McKay, Brissett, Quadrant or Cadran, Savard, Belleau, Whalen, Thebault or Thebo, Bourassa, Neveau, Boyer, Quebec, Riel, Jourdains, and Dubois.  

Fort Benton is built by the The American Fur Company about 60 Km down the Missouri River from present day Great Falls, Manitoba.   This Fort would become a major trading point for Alberta, including Fort Edmonton, Fort Calgary, Fort McLeod and Fort Whoop-up near Lethbridge. 

Kit Carson ( Christopher Houston) (1809-1868) executed three Californian Mexican and failed to create a Bear Flag Republic in Mexican California.  Later this year he would guide Stephen Kearny'a Army from New Mexico to California.

Benjamin McKenzie who attended the Red River Mission School recalls superintendence of Reverend John Macallum d-1849, as a stern, red-wigged, snuff-taking man who kept by his desk a 'finger-sized native brown willow stick, about three and a half feet long'.  Life under Macallum was 'bitter as Egyptian slavery'.   Letitia Hargraves wrote that Macallum's School is going to wreck.  Children who have had duck, geese and vension 3 times a day are supposed to suffer from breakfast of milk and water with dry bread, suffering severe floggings and confinement after any fault.  The boys & girls are constantly fainting but Macallum won't change his system.  As a result Thomas Simpson records his actions has thinned the swarm of children not a little through death.  Henry Rowand and Allen McDonnell lost a son and daughter in 1835.  The Mission was run by the Church of England who considered it as run as 'one of a superior order'.  Donald Ross however warned Macallum that a 'current of unfavorable opinion exists in regard to your school -- but more particularly the female department.. Adam Thom wrote the Mission has palpable dirt in every apartment, itch uncared foe among 2/3 of the schoolboys, lice, want of water unless from the river even for the youngest.  Insufficiency of food, both as to quantity and as to quality, at breakfast and supper -- fuel to be found for the school-room stove, only by chopping it -- and lastly their two girls, both of whom had long been with Mr. Macallum, in the family-way before the the end of the first six months. 

January 30:  Moose Factory, birth (II)-Frances Caroline Swanson, Metis daughter (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and Frances Robinson, Metis (1821-1876) daughter John Robinson of Michipicoten  (Northern Ontario) and Indian woman.  

May 18:   Alick Videl visited Sault Ste Marie, Ontario and recorded the following individuals who resided or were in possession of land:    Jean Baptiste Soulier, Guidon, Augustus LaRoche, Pierre Belleau, Michel Bouille, Augustin LaRoche, Jean Baptiste Charette, William Perrault, Alexis Biron, Brassar, Michel Labatte, Louis Miron, Joseph Lafond, Francois La-rose, Alexis Biron, Etienne Jolineau, Charles Cadotte, and Joshua Trott.

May 24:  (II)-Paul Kane (1810-1871) departed Fort William for Red River where he sketched the Metis bison (buffalo) hunt.  He then traveled to Norway House, Fort Pitt and Fort Edmonton.  He then traveled Jasper house, Columbia Fort Colville and Walla Walla.

May 27: Red River, baptism (III)-Janet Gunn, Metis daughter (II)-William Gunn, Metis (1822-1842) son (I)-Donald Gunn (1797-1878) employed HBC (1813-1822) out of York Factory; married a half-breed woman before 1821 York Factory and 2nd marriage January 17, 1826, Image Plains, (III)-Margaret Swain, Metis, daughter (II)-James Swain, Metis (11799-1887) and Margaret Racette: married February 6, 1874 Alexander Montgomery Muckle.

June 9: Red River, baptized  (II)-Ann Millar, Metis daughter (I)-Robert Millar b-1798 married Red River about 1840 (II)-Elizabeth Setter, Metis   Daughter Barbra was also baptized this date but likely born 1845

Jun 16, Pierre Bottineau Metis (1810/17-1895) sold his claim of 100 acres on Baptist hill for $300, to Francis Chenevert and David Benoit. He purchased 160 acres of land upstream on the Mississippi near Nicollet Island at the site of the Falls for $150 later known as Bottineau's Addition. Pierre had purchased Carpenter's interest in 1844 and after acquiring the interest of Russell and Findley became the owner of the entire claim of 320 acres.

June 21:  Red River, baptism, (II)-Thomas Foulds, Metis, died 1922, son, (I)-Samuel Foulds (Folds, Foldes) (1803-1870) to Nancy (Ann & Anne) Calder, Metis (1803-1896): married 1871, Charlotte Armstrong

July 5; Red River, baptism (II)-Alexandert Brown, Metis, died July 9, 1852, son, (I)-Henry Brown, b-1799, Orkney and Isabella Slater b-1806, Metis

Mid July: Robert Stockton captured Monterey, California from Mexico.

July 20: Red River, baptism, (III)-Catherine Danial, Metis, daughter (II)-Griffiths (Griffith) Daniel, Metis, (183/90-1869) employed HBC (1800-1830) and Madeleine McKay b-1825 Red River;

July 29: Femont of a ship provided by Robert Stockton captured San Diego, California from Mexico.

July 31: Robert Stockton captured Santa Barbara, California from Mexico.

August 2:  Santa Fe, the capital city of New Mexico is occupied by Stephen Watts Kearny's American army.

August 17: Femont and Robert Stockton declare California as United States Territory, lands snatched away from Mexico by force of arms.

Fall: Father Pierre Jean De Smet (1801-1873) in Missouri encountered 10,000 Mormons camped in Omahas.  They asked a thousand questions about the regions I had traveled.  I gave them an account of the Great Salt Lake region, which greatly pleased them.

November:  The Donner Party or more correctly the 38 members of the Donner-Reed party and other pioneers to total 81,  set out for California but were stopped in the high Sierra Navada November 1846 and were snow bound until February 1847 when they were rescued.  It was claimed some of the pioneers resorted to cannibalism to survive.   However detailed analysis of bone fragments in the hearth at their Adler Creek campsite showed they consumed cattle, deer, horse and family dog.  No human bones were identified. 



(II)-Alexander Christie Metis Jr. b-1818 Rupert's House son (I)-Alexander Christe Sr. (1783-1872) and (II)-Ann Thomas Metis b-1796; employed HBC 1847 Red River

William Faries Metis (1847-1900) born Indian country, likely son? Hugh Faria (1776-1852) joined HBC (1863-1896) Moose and Albany, 

(III)-John James Harper Metis b-1847 Red River son (II)-James Harper Metis (1813-1887; joined HBC (1870-1877) Athabasca 

(III)-Alexander Kennedy Isbister, Metis, d-1883 delivered a report to the British Association for the Advancement of Science stating that when Europeans made contact with the natives on terms set by the Indians, the Europeans prospered and the natives were not harmed.  When the Europeans established the terms, as was true for most of the contact between Company and natives, the consequences were disastrous for the natives. 

James Linklater Metis joined HBC 1847-1900) Moose Factory, and Albany

(I)-John Palliser (1817-1887) spent 11 months hunting bison (buffalo), elk and grizzly bear in Missouri Country.

One hundred thousand Irish immigrants came to Canada this year to escape the dreadful potato famine.  Many suffer from typhus and cholera that spread across Canada.  About 20,000 immigrants would die before being settled.  

A study of the Hudson Bay Company personnel records for the period 1823 to 1848 shows that, of junior employees whose origins could be traced, more are from Sorel, Quebec than any other community, with the exception of Montreal.  Fifty percent of the work force is still Metis whom the English considered the cheapest and best servants.  The English also consider the Metis to be born of inferior stock and therefore not allowed to become officers.  This fundamental English belief applied to all people who were not of English stock, and the discrimination would continue well into the late twentieth century.

Henry M. Rice complained that the Hudson Bay Company was buying all the (wild) rice in the Territories, forcing the American traders to depart the Territories due to lack of supplies.  Henry M. Rice estimates one half the Metis in Red River of the North, some four thousand, are farming but still attend the annual bison (buffalo) hunt and could be enticed south of the boarder if given land.  At this time Norman Kittson, agent of Chotian June and Company, with a Mr. Roulette, were working the establishment at Pembina with sixty five Red River carts.  Rev. Belcourt was the Catholic Missionary at Pembina, being there from 1831, and had established a Chippewa school at the junction of the Red and Pembina Rivers.  Wisconsin became a state this year.

The side-wheeler, 'Julia Palmer', is so inefficient that it took 16 days to travel 200 miles from Copper Harbor to Sault Ste Marie.

Four thousand American settlers streamed into the Canadian Oregon Territories this year.  The Mormons, as a result of religious persecution in Missouri and Illinois, headed west.  Their route, the Mormon Trail,  started at Council Bluffs, Iowa and followed the north side of the Platte and North Platte Rivers as far as the American Fur Company Post, Fort Laramie, in eastern Wyoming, where it joined the Oregon Trail.

John Frankland (1786-1847) sailed with two ships, 134 men and enough supplies to last two years, to chart the Canadian Arctic.  All perished.

January:  The New Mexico People revolted against the American occupation of their lands and killed the new governor Charles Rent and others.  One American soldier said the whole of Northeastern New Mexico was in revolt except Las Vegas because of the military occupation there.

January 19:  Red River, baptized (II)-John George Lillie Lillie and (II)-Mary Anne Lillie, Metis children (I)-Daniel Lillie aka (Lilley, Lilly & Lily) to 2nd wife Mary Anne Richards, half breed (1812-1847)

February 18:  Red River, The Hudson Bay Company in person of Governor Christe and Sir George Simpson contend they have the right to sell lands given to half-breeds (Metis) by the Indians.  Sir George's statements before the Committee were very often so erroneous that but little weight can be attached to what he said even if it were apparent, which it is not, that he was aware of the fact that the Company's 
predecessor had extensively granted freeholds.   The Metis won their case.  Lord Selkirk and the Hudson Bay Company had no legal right as a foreign country representative to impose their will on a free western region.  That many such mistakes have been made by the Crown is an open secret among the legal profession.  Even now in modern times "uneasy lie the heads" of many landowners in one of the most valuable residence portions of Winnipeg, Fort Rouge.  Justice has not prevailed.

March 26:   (II)-Paul Kane (1810-1871) witnessed the eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington) from the mouth of the Lewis River in Oregon Territory.

April 2:  Catherine Larence, Metis, born April 2, 1847, Saskatchewan daughter Bazil Larence, b-1789/95 and Agathe Michel L'Iroquoise; married Bazile Ritchot, born June 15, 1838 son Joseph Ritchot, b-1785 Yamaska, PQ and Josette Maileau (married Red River 1825).

April 11:  Moose Factory, baptism, (II)-Robertt Swanson, Metis son (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and Frances Robinson, Metis (1821-1876) daughter John Robinson of Michipicoten  (Northern Ontario) and Indian woman.  

August 2:  Treaty with the Chippewa of the Mississippi and Lake Superior included the following clause:

Half or mixed blood of the Chippewa (Ojibwa) to be considered as Chippewa

Some of the signors of the treaty that maybe Metis are as follows:

Chief Battiste Gauthier - half-breed (Metis) - Lapointe Band
Michel Bashena
Warrior, John Baptiste Cadotte
Charles Charlo
Alexander Corbin, Chief
Chief Lueson Corbin
Lueson Godin
David King, 1st chief, - Ance
Peter Marksman, Chief
Jno. Pta. Rellemger
Warrior, John Baptiste Roy
Chief, Vincent Roy
John Sayer
Second Chief, Lemo Sayer
William W.W. Warren, 1st Chief

July 24:  Brigham Young (1801-1877) arrived Salt Lake Valley, Mexico Territory (Utah) and said "This is the right place"  The Spanish in 1777 had recommended the Valley for settlement.  Brigham Young (1801-1877) was a notorious bigamist who preached polygamy.  He had about 55 wives and 57 children.  21 wives had never previously married, 16 were widows, 6 were divorced and 6 had living husbands.

December 25: Red River, baptized  (II)-Elizabeth Millar, Metis daughter (I)-Robert Millar b-1798 married Red River about 1840 (II)-Elizabeth Setter, Metis 

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